Note: Several fact sheets describe drugs that are being tested against HIV:
These drugs have not been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use against HIV.
Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors
These drugs stop HIV from multiplying by blocking the reverse transcriptase enzyme. This enzyme changes HIV's genetic material (RNA) into the form of DNA. This step has to occur before HIV's genetic code gets combined with an infected cell's own genetic codes. Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, called NNRTIs or non-nukes, physically prevent the reverse transcriptase enzyme from working.
NNRTIs in Development
BILR 355 BS by Boehringer Ingelheim is being developed against wild type virus and virus already resistant to NNRTIs. A Phase II study is in progress.
(+)-Calanolide A by Sarawak MediChem Pharmaceuticals was derived from a rain forest plant. There are no recent reports on its status.
GSK 2248761 (was IDX899 by Idenix Pharma) was being studied in Phase II studies. It is being developed by ViiV Healthcare. In February 2011 the FDA placed a hold on its development.
Lersivirine (UK 453,061) by ViiV Healthcare is beeing studied in Phase II trials. It appears to be active against resistant strains of HIV. This includes virus resistant to efavirenz.
MIV-150 by Medivir showed good results in the laboratory against HIV that is resistant to other NNRTIs. It has been licensed for use as part of a vaginal microbicide (see Fact Sheet 157).
RDEA806 by Ardea has completed a Phase II trial. The drug is active against HIV that is resistant to efavirenz. Viral resistance does not develop easily.
Rilpivirine (TMC278) by Tibotec is active against some strains of HIV that are resistant to other NNRTIs. It is being developed as a once-daily medication. It was approved by the FDA in 2011. See Fact Sheet 435. A slow-release formulation is being studied.
NNRTIs No Longer in Development
The following NNRTIs are no longer being developed for use against HIV:
Atevirdine by Upjohn
Capravirine by Pfizer/Agouron Pharmaceuticals
Dapivirine (TMC120) by Tibotec was abandoned due to low blood levels. However, it may still be useful as a microbicide.
DPC083 by Bristol-Myers Squibb
Emivirine (Coactinon) by Triangle Pharmaceuticals
GW5634, GW678248 by GlaxoSmithKline
Loviride by Janssen Pharmaceuticals
HBY-097 by Hoechst-Bayer
PNU142721 by Pharmacia & Upjohn
TMC120 by Tibotec