Drug Names and Manufacturers

  1. Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors ("Nukes")
  2. Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors
  3. Protease Inhibitors
  4. Integrase Inhibitors
  5. Attachment and Fusion Inhibitors

None of these drugs can kill the HIV virus, but each class slows down the multiplication of the virus (replication) in a particular way.

Combination medications: Some manufacturers have combined more than one drug into a single tablet or capsule. Combinations within a single class are listed below. Combinations of more than one type of drug are discussed in Fact Sheet 470.

1. Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors ("Nukes")

The first anti-HIV drugs. They block reverse transcription (the creation of viral DNA from RNA) by providing "decoy" building blocks that interrupt the process. Most are nucleoside analogs; tenofovir is a nucleotide analog.

Year
Approved*
Generic NameTrade NameAlso Known As:Manufacturer
1987ZidovudineRetrovirAZT, ZDVViiV Healthcare & generic
1991DidanosineVidexddIBristol-Myers Squibb & generic
1992ZalcitabineHividddC,
dideoxycytidine
Roche: Manufacture discontinued in 2006
1994StavudineZeritd4TBristol-Myers Squibb & generic
1995LamivudineEpivir3TCViiV Healthcare & generic
1997Zidovudine/ lamivudineCombivirCombines AZT
and 3TC
ViiV Healthcare & generic
1998AbacavirZiagenABCViiV Healthcare & generic
2000Zidovudine/ lamivudine/ abacavirTrizivirCombines AZT, 3TC, abacavirViiV Healthcare
2001TenofovirVireadTDFGilead Sciences & generic
2003EmtricitabineEmtrivaFTCGilead Sciences & generic
2004Abacavir/lamivudineEpzicomCombines Ziagen and 3TCViiV Healthcare & generic
2004Emtricitabine/tenofovirTruvadaCombines Emtriva and VireadGilead Sciences & generic

2. Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors

These also interrupt reverse transcription, by binding to the reverse transcriptase enzyme and restricting its activity.

Year
Approved*
Generic NameTrade NameAlso Known As:Manufacturer
1996NevirapineViramuneNVPBoehringer Ingelheim & generic
1997DelavirdineRescriptorDLVViiV Healthcare
1998EfavirenzSustiva,StocrinEFVBristol-Myers Squibb & generic
2008EtravirineIntelenceETRTibotec
2011RilpivirineEdurantRPVTibotec

3. Protease Inhibitors

Block the action of protease, an enzyme that cuts HIV protein chains into specific proteins needed to assemble a new copy of the virus. NOTE: when you see "/r" after the name of a protease inhibitor, that means it is boosted with a small dose of ritonavir. For example, SQV/r means saquinavir boosted with ritonavir. At present, only lopinavir and ritonavir are available in a single pill.

Year
Approved*
Generic NameTrade NameAlso Known As:Manufacturer
1995SaquinavirInviraseSQVRoche
1996RitonavirNorvirRTVAbbott
1996IndinavirCrixivanIDVMerck
1997NelfinavirViraceptNFVViiV Healthcare
1997SaquinavirFortovase; Manufacture discontinued in 2006Roche
1999AmprenavirAgenerase; Manufacture discontinued in 2007ViiV Healthcare
2000Lopinavir/ritonavirKaletra, AluviaLPVAbbott & generic
2003AtazanavirReyataz®™ATVBristol-Myers Squibb
2003FosamprenavirLexiva®™, TelzirFPVViiV Healthcare
2005TipranavirAptivusTPVBoehringer Ingelheim
2006DarunavirPrezistaDRVTibotec

4. Integrase Inhibitors

Block the action of integrase, an enzyme that inserts the viral DNA into the infected cell's DNA strands.

Year
Approved*
Generic NameTrade NameAlso Known As:Manufacturer
2007RaltegravirIsentressRGVMerck
2012ElvitegravirNone yet, part of StribildEVGGilead
2013DolutegravirTivicayDTGViiv Healthcare

5. Attachment and Fusion Inhibitors

Prevent HIV from attaching to a cell.

Year
Approved*
Generic NameTrade NameAlso Known As:Manufacturer
2003EnfuvirtideFuzeonT-20Trimeris/Roche
2007MaravirocSelzentry, CelsentriMVCViiV Healthcare

*Year of approval in the U.S.A. Many generic versions have been approved under the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief. See www.fda.gov/oia/pepfar.htm for more information.