Zidovudine can cause serious, life-threatening side effects. These include hypersensitivity reaction or rash, a buildup of lactic acid in the blood (lactic acidosis), liver problems, muscle weakness (myopathy), and blood disorders such as extremely reduced numbers of red blood cells (severe anemia) or reduced numbers of white blood cells (neutropenia).
Contact your health care provider right away if you have any of the following symptoms that could be signs of a hypersensitivity reaction:
- Blistering or peeling of the skin
- Difficulty breathing or swallowing
- Swelling of the eyes, face, tongue, lips, or throat
Contact your health care provider immediately or get emergency medical treatment right away if you have any of the following symptoms that could be signs of liver problems or lactic acidosis:
- Nausea, vomiting
- Pain in the upper right part of your stomach
- Loss of appetite
- Extreme tiredness
- Dizziness, lightheadedness
- Fast or irregular heartbeat
- Trouble breathing
- Dark-colored urine
- Light-colored bowel movements
- Yellowing of your skin or the whites of your eyes (jaundice)
- Feeling cold, especially in the arms or legs
- Unusual muscle pain
Contact your health care provider if you have any of the following symptoms of myopathy:
- Muscle pain
Contact your health care provider right away if you have any of the following symptoms of severe anemia or neutropenia:
- Unusual bleeding or bruising
- Fever, chills, or other symptoms of infection
- Unusual tiredness or weakness
- Pale skin
Worsening of liver disease (sometimes resulting in death) has occurred in people with both HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection who were taking HIV medicines and also being treated for HCV infection with interferon with or without ribavirin. If you are taking zidovudine as well as interferon with or without ribavirin and you experience side effects, tell your health care provider.
While taking zidovudine, it is important to keep all of your appointments with your health care provider.
What Is Zidovudine?
Zidovudine is a prescription medicine approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the following uses:
- To treat HIV infection in adults and children 4 weeks of age and older. When zidovudine is used to treat HIV infection, the medicine is always used in combination with other HIV medicines.
- To prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV. When used to prevent mother-to-child transmission, zidovudine is given to women with HIV during pregnancy and childbirth and to their infants for 6 weeks after birth.
Zidovudine belongs to a class (group) of HIV drugs called nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs). NRTIs block an HIV enzyme called reverse transcriptase. (An enzyme is a protein that starts or increases the speed of a chemical reaction.) By blocking reverse transcriptase, NRTIs prevent HIV from multiplying and can reduce the amount of HIV in the body.
HIV medicines can't cure HIV/AIDS, but taking a combination of HIV medicines (called an HIV regimen) every day helps people with HIV live longer, healthier lives. HIV medicines also reduce the risk of HIV transmission. However, despite use of zidovudine to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV, some cases of HIV infection can still occur.
Zidovudine may also be used off-label to treat some conditions associated with human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8) infection in people with HIV. For information on the off-label HIV-related use of zidovudine, please refer to the HHV-8 section of the Guidelines for the Prevention and Treatment of Opportunistic Infections in HIV-Infected Adults and Adolescents.
What Should I Tell My Health Care Provider Before Taking Zidovudine?
Before taking zidovudine, tell your health care provider:
- If you are allergic to zidovudine or any other medicines.
- If you have or have ever had liver or kidney disease.
- If you have or have ever had bleeding, anemia, or other blood problems.
- If you have or have ever had any disease or swelling of the muscles.
- If you have or have had any other medical conditions.
- If you drink alcohol or have a history of alcohol abuse.
- If you are pregnant or plan to become pregnant. Despite use of zidovudine to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV, some cases of HIV infection can still occur. Whether exposure to zidovudine in the womb or after birth can harm a baby in the long term is unknown. Talk to your health care provider about possible risks with taking zidovudine when pregnant.
- If you are breastfeeding or plan to breastfeed. Do not breastfeed if you have HIV or are taking zidovudine.
- If you are using hormone-based birth control (such as pills, implants, or vaginal rings). For more information about using birth control and HIV medicines at the same time, view the AIDSinfo HIV and Birth Control infographic.
- About other prescription and nonprescription medicines, vitamins, nutritional supplements, and herbal products you are taking or plan to take. Zidovudine may affect the way other medicines or products work, and other medicines or products may affect how zidovudine works. Taking zidovudine together with certain medicines or products may cause serious, life-threatening side effects.
How Should I Take Zidovudine?
Zidovudine (brand name: Retrovir) comes in the following forms and strengths:
- 300-mg tablets.
- 100-mg capsules.
- 10-mg/mL syrup.
- 20-mL single-use vials for intravenous (IV) injection. Each vial contains 200 mg of zidovudine in 20 mL solution (a solution is a mixture of a medicine and a liquid).
Take zidovudine according to your health care provider's instructions.
Take zidovudine capsules and syrup with or without food.
Vials of zidovudine for IV injection contain 200 mg of zidovudine in a 20 mL solution. (A solution is a mixture of a medicine and a liquid.). Before use, the appropriate dose of zidovudine is drawn from the vial and diluted with a dextrose (sugar)/water solution. The diluted medicine is injected slowly (infused) over a specified period of time through a needle or catheter into a vein.
If you take too much zidovudine, contact your health care provider or local poison control center (1-800-222-1222) right away, or go to the nearest hospital emergency room.
See the FDA drug labels from DailyMed for more information on how to take zidovudine tablets and zidovudine capsules and syrup. (DailyMed is a federal website that includes the most recent drug labels submitted to FDA.) For more information on how to take zidovudine for IV injection, see the drug summary from MedlinePlus.
What Should I Do if I Forget a Dose?
If you are taking zidovudine by mouth and forget a dose, take the missed dose as soon as you remember it. But if it is almost time for your next dose, skip the missed dose and just take your next dose at the regular time. Do not take two doses at the same time to make up for a missed dose.
What Side Effects Can Zidovudine Cause?
Zidovudine may cause side effects. Many side effects from HIV medicines, such as nausea or occasional dizziness, are manageable. See the AIDSinfo fact sheet on HIV Medicines and Side Effects for more information.
Some side effects of zidovudine can be serious. Serious side effects of zidovudine include lactic acidosis, liver problems, myopathy, and blood disorders such as severe anemia or neutropenia. (See the WARNING box above).
Other possible side effects of zidovudine include:
- Changes in the immune system (called immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome or IRIS). IRIS is a condition that sometimes occurs when the immune system begins to recover after treatment with an HIV medicine. As the immune system gets stronger, it may have an increased response to a previously hidden infection.
- Changes in body fat (including gain or loss of fat).
Tell your health care provider if you have any side effect that bothers you or that does not go away.
These are not all the possible side effects of zidovudine. To learn more about possible side effects of zidovudine, read the drug label or package insert or talk to your health care provider or pharmacist.
You can report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 (1-800-332-1088) or online at www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/medwatch/.
How Should Zidovudine Be Stored?
- Store zidovudine tablets at 68°F to 77°F (20°C to 25°C).
- Store zidovudine capsules and syrup at 59°F to 77°F (15°C to 25°C). Protect zidovudine capsules from moisture.
- Keep zidovudine in the container that it came in and keep the container tightly closed.
- Do not use zidovudine if the original seal over the container opening is broken or missing.
- Store vials of zidovudine for IV injection at 59°F to 77°F (15°C to 25°C) and protect them from light.
- Once zidovudine for IV injection is diluted, use the solution within 8 hours if stored at 59°F to 77°F (15°C to 25°C) or 24 hours if refrigerated at 36°F to 46°F (2°C to 8°C).
- Throw away zidovudine that is no longer needed or expired (out of date). Follow FDA guidelines on how to safely dispose of unused medicine.
- Keep zidovudine and all medicines out of reach of children.
- Keep zidovudine and all medicines out of reach of children.
Where Can I Find More Information About Zidovudine?
More information about zidovudine is available:
Main number: 877-844-8872
Patient assistance (ViiV Connect): 844-588-3288
The above Patient Version drug summary is based on the following FDA label(s): Capsule, syrup, tablet (film coated), injection (solution).
[Note from TheBody: This article was created by AIDSinfo, who last updated it on . 23, 2018. We have cross-posted it with their permission.]