The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reported the results of its new and on-going studies into epidemiological trends and the effects of disease.
Racial and ethnic differences were presented at the international conference. The percent of students reporting four or more sex partners decreased 33% among black students and 27% among white students. Condom use increased by 54% among Latino students, 52% among black students and 37% among white students.
The CDC reports that "the authors attribute the changes in HIV-related risk behaviors to the broad efforts of families, schools, community-based organizations and government to reduce the impact of the AIDS epidemic among U.S. youth."
Of 159 children followed over five years (1999-2003), the 99 children on a protease inhibitor (PI) were four times more likely to have high cholesterol levels than the other children.
The report stated that, "While cholesterol-associated health problems -- including heart disease and heart attack -- are extremely rare among children, researchers noted that cardiovascular complications might arise in these HIV-positive children as effective antiretroviral therapies allow them to live into adulthood. Researchers recommended that cholesterol levels be closely monitored among children taking PIs, and that the benefit of interventions such as diet, exercise, and lipid-lowering drug therapy be considered."
The PACTS-HOPE study examines the medical and psychological impact of HIV on children infected at birth.
Of the 587 men who reported receptive anal intercourse in the previous six months, those who expressed "treatment optimism" were nearly twice as likely to not have used a condom during their latest intercourse. This was true even when the partner was HIV-positive or of unknown status. According to the CDC, "The researchers stressed the need for innovations in prevention that take into account the availability of effective AIDS treatments and the lessening concern about the consequences of infection."
In the first survey conducted, nearly one in five men (17%) reported having sex with both men and women in the previous six months. Of these, 22% reported that they had unprotected sex with both men and women.
In the second survey, 9% reported sex with both men and women in the previous six months, and 27% of this group reported unprotected sex with men and women in that period.
The level of HIV infections, other sexually transmitted diseases and risk behaviors for HIV (such as injection drug use or having sex under the influence of drugs or alcohol) did not differ between the MSM with female partners and the men who only had sex with men.
The Phase I survey was conducted with 3,592 MSM ages 15 to 22 in seven cities, between 1994 and 1998. Phase II was conducted with 2,949 MSM ages 23 to 29 in six cities, between 1998 and 2000.
The incidence was 20% among African American MSM, 10% among those of mixed race; 5% among Latinos, 4% among whites and 3% among Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders.
The overall annual HIV incidence -- the number of people newly diagnosed each year -- among the 2,906 participants was 6%.
Among the HIV-positive MSM, fear of being observed made men 15.4 times more likely to have had unprotected insertive anal intercourse with someone whose HIV status was negative or unknown. Fear of performance made this risk 7.4 times more likely, while fear of social interaction made it 4.7 times more likely.
The researchers found that social anxiety among the straight men did not "have a similar impact" on their risk behavior.
According to the report, "The authors conclude that social anxiety, like other mental health issues, affects sexual risk and may play a significant role in HIV transmission among MSM."
The women received a finger-stick OraQuick Rapid HIV test. Of 4,849 women tested, 34 were found to be HIV-positive. They were given HIV treatment to prevent infection of the baby within an average of one hour. These moms represented a prevalence rate of 7.0 per 1,000 women.
The MIRIAD study (Mother-Infant Rapid Intervention At Delivery) took place at 16 hospitals in six cities during 2001-2003.
Nevertheless, unprotected sex remained high in both groups: 78% for the group receiving one counseling session vs. 68% for the group with more extensive counseling.
The 522 prisoners, all between the ages of 18 and 29, were counseled on reducing risks for acquiring hepatitis, HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases. The Project START study was conducted in eight state prisons in four states. Half received the extensive counseling.