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Older People and HIV

August 10, 2014

Table of Contents

How Many Older People Have AIDS?

Older people represent a growing share of the HIV population. By 2015, it's estimated that nearly half of all people living with HIV in the US will be over the age of 50. In some communities, more than half of positives are already this age. The number of older people living with HIV is increasing in many other countries.

The number of older people newly diagnosed with AIDS is increasing. There are three types of older people with HIV: people who have been living with HIV for many years; older HIV-infected people who are just learning their HIV status; and older people newly infected with HIV. About half of the older people with AIDS have been infected for one year or less.

The rates of HIV/AIDS among older people are 12 times higher for African-Americans and 5 times higher for Hispanics compared with whites.

Many people don't consider age 50 to be "old." However, scientists who keep statistics on "older people" with HIV and AIDS use the cutoff age of 50.

Why Are Older People Getting Infected?

There are several reasons:

Is HIV Disease Different for Older People?

The first studies of HIV in older people were done before strong anti-HIV drugs were available. Most of them showed that older people got sicker and died faster than younger people. This was thought to be due to the weaker immune systems of older people. Also, older people usually have health problems in addition to HIV.

Recent research shows that older people respond well to antiretroviral treatment. Most older patients, unless they are drug users or have mental health problems, take their HIV medications more regularly than younger patients. They have better adherence (see Fact Sheet 405).

Is HIV the Same in Older People?

Once on treatment, CD4 cell levels (see Fact Sheet 124) do not recover as quickly in older patients as in younger patients.

Treatment side effects (see Fact Sheet 550) may not be any more frequent in older people. However, changes caused by aging can resemble or worsen treatment side effects. For example, older age is a major risk factor for heart disease and for increasing fat in the abdomen. Some older people without HIV lose fat that looks similar to the changes caused by lipodystrophy.

Recent research suggests that many of the health problems of older people may progress faster in people with HIV. Inflammation (see Fact Sheet 484) is a major factor in several diseases of aging.

What Other Health Problems Are Common?

As people age, they develop health issues that continue for the rest of their lives. These can include heart disease, depression (see Fact Sheet 558,) osteoporosis (Fact Sheet 557), high blood pressure, kidney problems (see Fact Sheet 651,) arthritis, diabetes, Alzheimer's disease and various forms of cancer.

Older people often take many different medications to deal with their health problems. This can make it more difficult for a doctor to choose anti-HIV drugs because of interactions with other medications.

Mental Problems

Older people may have more problems with thinking and remembering than younger people. These symptoms can appear to be the same as HIV-related memory problems. Fact Sheet 505 has more information on HIV and nervous system problems.

These problems, sometimes called dementia, are less common than they were before the use of anti-HIV drugs. It is difficult to know what is causing mental problems in older people with HIV. Is it normal aging, or is it HIV disease? Research studies have linked both age and higher viral load (see Fact Sheet 125) to mental problems.

Rates of depression and substance use haven't been well studied in older people. However, these problems may be related to HIV disease, aging, or both. They need to be diagnosed and treated correctly.

For More Information

See the website of the National Center for HIV and Aging.

The Bottom Line

The number of people over 50 with HIV or AIDS is growing rapidly. About 40% of people with AIDS in the United States are over age 50.

Older people get HIV the same way as younger people. However, they may not be aware that they are at risk of HIV infection. They also may not know how to protect themselves from HIV transmission.

Older people have to deal with other health issues. These can complicate the selection of anti-HIV medications. They can also be confused with some of the side effects of HIV drugs.

HIV drugs seem to work as well in older people as in younger people, although their CD4 cell counts may be lower. Also, older people may be better about taking their medications than younger people.

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