Aging and HIV
November 27, 2015
Life expectancy: In most countries, women in the general population live four to five years longer than men. Women living with HIV, however, have life expectancies equal to men living with HIV. In other words, women living with HIV lose their usual longer life expectancy compared to men.
Co-morbidities: Co-morbidities refers to medical conditions that people have in addition to HIV. These include things like diabetes, liver disease, anemia, and high blood pressure. Compared to HIV-negative people, people living with HIV are more likely to have co-morbid conditions.
Heart disease: As people get older, their risk of heart attack and stroke goes up. Among post-menopausal women, heart disease can be especially serious because most women who die suddenly from heart disease had no previous symptoms.
Recent studies suggest that persistent immune activation and inflammation in people living with HIV may contribute to the development of plaque in blood vessels, which can increase the risk for heart attacks and strokes. Early studies show that statins, a type of cholesterol-lowering drug, can reduce the build-up of plaque in the arteries of people living with HIV. Based on these promising early studies, the US National Institutes of Health (NIH) is now conducting large-scale trials to examine the ability of statins to reduce cardiovascular disease in people living with HIV.
For good heart health, people living with HIV should talk with their health care providers about checking cholesterol levels, blood pressure, and blood sugar. Also consider heart-protective habits such as exercising, stopping smoking, and eating a healthy diet. For more information, see The Well Project's article, Caring for Your Heart.
Cancers: HIV has long been recognized as increasing the risk of certain AIDS-related cancers. Research now shows that HIV also increases the risk of non-AIDS-related cancers. These cancers include anal cancer, liver cancer, lung cancer, and Hodgkin's lymphoma.
It is important to get regular screening for cancers known to occur more often in people living with HIV (such as cervical cancer) and for common cancers that do not appear to occur more frequently in people living with HIV (including breast, colon, and prostate cancer).
Anemia: While anemia is no longer as serious a problem as it was early in the HIV epidemic, close to one-third of all women living with HIV still experience mild anemia due to a variety of factors. Even mild anemia has been shown to decrease the chances of one's survival while living with HIV. In older people, anemia is associated with less muscle strength, difficulty thinking, and an increased risk for falls.
Blood tests for anemia are fairly simple, and can help point to its cause. Depending on the source of your anemia, your provider will recommend appropriate treatment. Most providers regularly screen for anemia when doing routine blood work to monitor HIV disease. For more information, see The Well Project's article Anemia and Women.
Bone disease: Weakened bones can occur with age, especially in women after they stop having menstrual periods. Loss of bone density can lead to osteoporosis, which weakens bones and raises the risk that bones may break. People living with HIV of both sexes are more likely to develop osteoporosis than HIV-negative individuals.
An easy and painless test called a DEXA scan can help you and your health care provider monitor your bone health and determine if you are at risk for a serious fracture. Vitamin D and calcium supplements may be recommended. Prescription medications to help reverse bone loss are also available.
For more information on specific conditions for which people living with HIV are at risk, see The Well Project's articles in the Health and Medical Issues section of our website.
While these health challenges may seem discouraging, they really show that people living with HIV are now living long-enough, healthy-enough lives to die of the same types of conditions that cause death in the general population. Because people living with HIV may encounter these medical issues sooner, it is important that both people living with HIV and their providers stay aware of them and take appropriate action. There is still plenty you can do to stay healthy and live a full life. Here are some suggestions to get you started:
"You Are Only as Old as You Feel"
Psychologists have shown that there is actually some truth in this. Having a positive attitude toward one's age can have a positive effect on one's health. Additionally, those who feel younger than their actual years tend to avoid many of the downsides associated with aging. The more credit you give yourself for wherever you are in life and the more you highlight what you CAN do, the more likely you will be to remain 'young at heart.'
Recent US treatment guidelines recommend that all people living with HIV start HIV treatment, regardless of their CD4 cell count or their age.
Many older people are already taking medications for other conditions. It is important to know if HIV drugs will interact with these medications, such as those used for high blood pressure or high cholesterol. Therefore, it is important to tell your health care provider about any over-the-counter medications, prescription drugs, herbs, vitamins, or supplements that you take so that you can identify any possible drug interactions.
Monitoring Your Overall Health
It is important for anyone over 40 to pay close attention to their health and get regular checkups. If you are living with HIV, it is important to keep an eye out for problems early so that you can make healthy choices as soon as possible. In addition to getting regular checkups that look for signs of the conditions listed above, be sure your checkups also look for cognitive problems (changes in thinking or memory), liver disease, kidney disease, metabolic and body shape abnormalities, diabetes, and mental health issues, including depression.
This article was provided by The Well Project. Visit The Well Project's Web site to learn more about their resources and initiatives for women living with HIV. The Well Project shares its content with TheBody.com to ensure all people have access to the highest quality treatment information available. The Well Project receives no advertising revenue from TheBody.com or the advertisers on this site. No advertiser on this site has any editorial input into The Well Project's content.
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