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Somatic Symptoms: Mental Health Approach and Differential Diagnosis

November 2008

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References

  1. Kroenke K, Spitzer RL, Williams J. The PHQ-15: Validity of a new measure for evaluating the severity of somatic symptoms. Psychosom Med 2002;64:258-266. [PubMed]

  2. Jackson JL, Passamonti M, Kroenke K. Outcome and impact of mental disorders in primary care at 5 years. Psychosom Med 2007;69:270-276. [PubMed]

  3. Randazzo AC, Schweitzer PK, Stone KL, et al. Impaired cognitive function in insomniacs vs. normals. Sleep 2000;23:A4.

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  5. Ammassari A, Murri R, Pezzotti P, et al. Self-reported symptoms and medication side effects influence adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy in persons with HIV infection. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2001;28:445-449. [PubMed]

  6. Ohayon MM, Roth T. Place of chronic insomnia in the course of depressive and anxiety disorders. J Psychiatr Res 2003;37:9-15. [PubMed]

  7. Darko DF, Mitler MM, Henriksen SJ. Lentiviral infection, immune response peptides and sleep. Adv Neuroimmunol 1995;5:57-77. [PubMed]

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  9. Martin C, Pehrsson P, Osterberg A, et al. Pain in ambulatory HIV-infected patients with and without intravenous drug use. Eur J Pain 1999;3:157-164. [PubMed]

  10. Singer EJ, Zorilla C, Fahy-Chandon B, et al. Painful symptoms reported by ambulatory HIV-infected men in a longitudinal study. Pain 1993;54:15-19. [PubMed]

  11. Smith MY, Egert J, Winkel G, et al. The impact of PTSD on pain experience in persons with HIV/AIDS. Pain 2002;98:9-17. [PubMed]

  12. Breitbart W, Rosenfeld BD, Passik SD, et al. The undertreatment of pain in ambulatory AIDS patients. Pain 1996;65:243-249. [PubMed]

  13. Morrison RS, Wallenstein S, Natale DK, et al. "We don't carry that" -- Failure of pharmacies in predominantly nonwhite neighborhoods to stock opioid analgesics. N Engl J Med 2000;342:1023-1026. [PubMed]

  14. Portenoy RK. Definitions and principles of assessment. In: Contemporary Diagnosis and Management of Pain in Oncologic and AIDS Patients. Newtown, PA: Handbooks in Health Care; 2000:14-43.

  15. Lusher J, Elander J, Bevan D, et al. Analgesic addiction and pseudoaddiction in painful chronic illness. Clin J Pain 2006;22:316-324. [PubMed]

  16. Bair MJ, Robinson RL, Eckert GJ, et al. Impact of pain on depression treatment response in primary care. Psychosom Med 2004;66:17-22. [PubMed]

  17. Skapinakis P, Lewis G, Mavreas V. Temporal relations between unexplained fatigue and depression: Longitudinal data from an international study in primary care. Psychosom Med 2004;66:330-335. [PubMed]

  18. Ohayon MM. Specific characteristics of the pain/depression association in the general population. J Clin Psychiatry 2004;65(Suppl 12):5-9. [PubMed]

  19. Sullivan PS, Dworkin MS; Adult and Adolescent Spectrum of HIV Disease Investigators. Prevalence and correlates of fatigue among persons with HIV infection. J Pain Symptom Manage 2003;25:329-333. [PubMed]

  20. Addington AM, Gallo JJ, Ford DE, et al. Epidemiology of unexplained fatigue and major depression in the community: The Baltimore ECA follow-up, 1981-1994. Psychol Med 2001;31:1037-1044. [PubMed]

  21. Cathebras PJ, Robbins JM, Kirmayer LJ, et al. Fatigue in primary care: Prevalence, psychiatric comorbidity, illness behavior, and outcome. J Gen Intern Med 1992;7:276-86. [PubMed]

  22. Rabkin JG, McElhiney MC, Rabkin R, et al. Modafinil treatment for fatigue in HIV+ patients: A pilot study.  J Clin Psychiatry 2004;65:1688-1695. [PubMed]

  23. Rabkin JG, McElhiney MC, Rabkin R, et al. Placebo-controlled trial of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) for treatment of nonmajor depression in patients with HIV/AIDS. Am J Psychiatry 2006;163:59-66. [PubMed]

  24. Mylonakis E, Koutkia P, Grinspoon S. Diagnosis and treatment of androgen deficiency in human immunodeficiency virus-infected men and women. Clin Infect Dis 2001;33:857-864. [PubMed]

  25. Kalyani RR, Gavini S, Dobs AS. Male hypogonadism in systemic disease. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 2007;36:333-348. [PubMed]

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  27. Corless IB, Kirksey KM, Kemppainen J, et al. Lipodystrophy-associated symptoms and medication adherence in HIV/AIDS. AIDS Patient Care STDS 2005;19:577-586. [PubMed]


Further Reading

American Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. Bethesda, MD. Available at: www.apm.org.

Cohen MA, Gorman JM, eds. Comprehensive Textbook of AIDS Psychiatry. New York: Oxford University Press; 2008.

Fernandez F, Ruiz P, eds. Psychiatric Aspects of HIV/AIDS. 1st ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2006.

Organization of AIDS Psychiatry. Bethesda, MD: Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. Available at: www.apm.org/sigs/oap.

Sharp TJ, Harvey AG. Chronic pain and posttraumatic stress disorder: Mutual maintenance? Clin Psychol Rev 2001;21:857-877. [PubMed]

Smith RC, Lein C, Collins C, et al. Treating patients with medically unexplained symptoms in primary care. J Gen Intern Med 2003;18:478-489. [PubMed]

Williams LS, Jones WJ, Shen J, et al. Outcomes of newly referred neurology outpatients with depression and pain. Neurology 2004;63:674-677. [PubMed]

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This article was provided by New York State Department of Health AIDS Institute.
 
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