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Pharmacokinetics, also known as PK, is the study of how medications behave in and move through the body. PK is used to figure out how much drug gets into your bloodstream and how long it stays there.
Scientists study PK to determine the best dose for an HIV drug. The dose must be high enough to keep HIV from reproducing, but not so high that it causes many side effects.
The following PK values are important:
The PK values are used to figure out the correct dose -- both the amount of drug and the schedule (once a day, twice a day, etc). In order for a drug to work, it must have a high enough minimum concentration (Cmin) and total exposure (AUC) to be effective against HIV.
PK values are also used to help avoid toxic side effects. If the maximum concentration (Cmax) gets too high, the drug can cause many side effects. The goal of HIV therapy is to get the most benefit from the drug with the fewest side effects.
Last but not least, the half-life of the drug must be long enough to allow for a reasonable dose schedule. Several drugs have a long enough half-life that they only need to be taken once a day.
Liver proteins called enzymes help with drug processing. Enzymes affect drugs by breaking them down. But enzymes are also affected by drugs.
This has proven to be very useful in HIV therapy. Here's an example: Norvir (ritonavir) is a protease inhibitor (PI) that makes the enzymes work slower. This keeps other drugs in the body longer. So if Norvir is given with another PI, like Reyataz (atazanavir), it "boosts" Reyataz by preventing it from being broken down as quickly by the liver. Boosting with Norvir increases both the minimum concentration (Cmin) and total exposure (AUC) of Reyataz.
As a result, Reyataz can be given once a day with a little Norvir. The boosted regimen makes Reyataz more effective. Several other PIs can be boosted with Norvir.
Health care providers should be aware of the pharmacokinetics of drugs and their interactions, and should make sure you get the right doses. That is why it is so important to let your provider know about all the medications and supplements you are taking (including herbs, prescriptions, over-the-counter, and street drugs). It is okay to ask your health care provider to check to see if any of your drugs interact with each other or anything else you take.
This article was provided by The Well Project. Visit The Well Project's Web site to learn more about their resources and initiatives for women living with HIV. The Well Project shares its content with TheBody.com to ensure all people have access to the highest quality treatment information available. The Well Project receives no advertising revenue from TheBody.com or the advertisers on this site. No advertiser on this site has any editorial input into The Well Project's content.
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