Lymphoma involves the uncontrolled growth of lymph cells that may spread to other organs, including bone marrow, the brain or spinal cord (central nervous system, or CNS lymphoma), and the gastrointestinal tract (GI lymphoma). The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) may play a role in the development of lymphomas.
The two major types are:
Lymphomas can be more advanced and harder to treat in HIV+ people, especially CNS lymphoma.
Cervical cancer is strongly linked to the human papilloma virus (HPV). HPV is the most common sexually-transmitted infection in the US. Different strains of HPV cause warts or abnormal cell growth (dysplasia) near the anus or cervix (entrance to the womb).
Dysplasia is more common in women with advanced HIV disease and low CD4 cell counts. It is often more severe and difficult to treat than in HIV-negative women. Untreated dysplasia can lead to cervical cancer, which can be life threatening. HPV may also cause cancer in the vagina, vulva, and anus.
The good news is, when dysplasia is found and treated early, cervical cancer can be prevented. A Pap smear is the test used to look for changes in the cervix, including dysplasia and cervical cancer. Cervical cancer usually takes years to develop, and it does not usually have symptoms until it is quite advanced. This is why getting screened for cervical cancer on a regular basis is important; screening can catch potential problems before they get worse. For more information on getting a gynecologic exam and Pap smear, see our information sheet on Caring for a Woman's Body."
The other good news is that there are two US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved HPV vaccines: Gardasil and Cervarix. Gardasil is approved for females and males ages nine to 26. Cervarix is approved for females ages ten to 25. Pregnant women should not use the vaccines. Both vaccines protect against types of HPV that cause most cervical cancers and genital warts.
Treatment for Dysplasia or Cancer That Is Very Localized
Treatment for Cervical Cancer
Treatment depends on the type of cervical cancer and how far it has spread. Often, more than one kind of treatment is used.
This article was provided by The Well Project. Visit The Well Project's Web site to learn more about their resources and initiatives for women living with HIV. The Well Project shares its content with TheBody.com to ensure all people have access to the highest quality treatment information available. The Well Project receives no advertising revenue from TheBody.com or the advertisers on this site. No advertiser on this site has any editorial input into The Well Project's content.
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