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Diagnostic, Monitoring and Resistance Laboratory Tests for HIV

June 2010

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Table of Contents


What's New -- June 2010 Update

Significant revisions include the following:

  • Information regarding diagnostic HIV tests has been expanded and updated (see Section II. Diagnostic Tests); such tests include:

    • Antibody screening assays
    • Home access tests
    • Rapid tests
    • Western blot for screening oral fluid and urine
  • Table 2 has been updated with the latest information regarding available rapid HIV tests
  • A table has been added that lists criteria for determining patients who are at risk for HIV-2 infection and should therefore receive combined HIV-1/HIV-2 screening (see Table 3)
  • A section on co-receptor tropism detection has been added (see Section III. C. 3. Co-Receptor Tropism Assay)
  • The committee now recommends performing HLA-B*5701 testing before initiating abacavir-based therapy (see Section III. D. Human Leukocyte Antigen Testing)


Key to Abbreviated Terms
bDNABranched chain DNA
CDCCenters for Disease Control and Prevention
CIAChemiluminescent immunoassay
EIAEnzyme immunoassay
ELISAEnzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
FDAUS Food and Drug Administration
HLAHuman leukocyte antigen
NATNucleic acid amplification test
OMTOral mucosal transudate
PBMCPeripheral blood mononuclear cell
PCRPolymerase chain reaction
RTReverse transcriptase
WBWestern blot


I. Introduction

Technologic advances in HIV laboratory testing continue to aid in screening, diagnosis, and patient management. Effective methods for detection of HIV-related laboratory markers are critical for both accurate HIV screening and for monitoring patients for disease progression and viral resistance to therapy. This chapter provides an overview of currently available HIV laboratory screening methods, viral load assays, and HIV resistance tests. Many new technologies that will further enhance testing methods are in various stages of development.

Patients presenting for testing within 36 hours of exposure to HIV should be assessed for post-exposure prophylaxis (see Post-Exposure Prophylaxis Guidelines). Expert advice may be obtained from the National Clinicians' Consultation Center PEP Line at 1-888-HIV-4911 (1-888-448-4911).

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This article was provided by New York State Department of Health AIDS Institute.
 
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