Women and HIV/AIDS
Table of Contents
- A Look at the Numbers
- Is HIV Different for Men and Women?
- Treatment in HIV+ Women: Efficacy, Side Effects, and Drug Interactions
- Gynecological Issues in HIV+ Women
- Pregnancy and HIV
- In Conclusion
Over 25 years have passed since the first diagnosis of AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) in America. While there were a handful of women among the first cases, AIDS was thought primarily to affect gay men. However, as the years passed, women have emerged as another group hard hit by the AIDS epidemic. In many countries, women living with HIV (HIV+) outnumber HIV+ men.
HIV affects both younger and older women. In fact, the rate of HIV diagnoses in older women has been rising recently; in 2009, people aged 45 and older accounted for 32 percent of new HIV diagnoses.
In 2010, 82 percent of all HIV+ women in the United States were women of color. Among women of color, African-American women are especially affected. Although African-American adolescent and adult women made up only 12 percent of the US female population, they accounted for 64 percent of all women living with HIV. Latinas made up 14 percent of the population and accounted for 16 percent of all HIV+ women. For African-American women, the rate of HIV diagnosis was almost 20 times as high as the rate for whites. For Latinas, it was almost five times as high as the rate for white women.
Heterosexual sex (sex between a male and female) is the most common way of getting HIV (or mode of transmission) among women in the US. During heterosexual sex, HIV is passed almost twice as easily from men to women as from women to men. Nearly three quarters of HIV+ women get the virus through sex with an HIV+ man. Heterosexual sex is also the main source of HIV transmission for women in many other countries in Africa, South America, and Western Europe. Sharing HIV-contaminated syringes for injecting drugs is another common mode of transmission.
Until recent years, little research had been done on women and HIV. While many questions remain unanswered, available information shows that HIV affects men and women differently in some ways:
- When women are first diagnosed, they tend to have lower viral loads (amount of HIV in the blood) compared to men who are newly diagnosed
- Women generally have lower CD4 cell counts than men with similar viral loads
- Women are more likely than men to develop bacterial pneumonia
- Women have higher rates of herpes infections than men
- Women get thrush (a yeast infection) in their throats more often than men
- Men are eight times more likely than women to develop Kaposi's sarcoma or KS (a cancer-like disease caused by a herpes virus)
Women tend to be diagnosed with HIV later in their disease than men and fewer women than men are getting HIV treatment. Women may delay getting medical care and treatment for several reasons, including:
- Limited access to health care due to lack of insurance and/or transportation
- Unstable housing
- Fear of violence in the home (domestic violence)
- Other responsibilities such as child care or caring for a sick partner
- The stigma associated with HIV
- Active substance abuse
- Lack of financial resources and/or social supports
- Mistrust of health care providers and/or the medical system
As Mother's Day Approaches, "None Born Positive" Campaign Puts Spotlight on Resources, Support for HIV-Positive Pregnant Women
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