HIV in Prisons and Jails
January 23, 2012
People with HIV sometimes have to spend time in a jail or prison. Jails are usually operated by counties. Prisons are state or federal institutions.
Medical care in a prison or jail depends on the local facility. In general, prisoners do not receive health care that meets public health standards.
Each year, many Americans with chronic diseases are jailed. This includes:
Among these inmates, up to 50% have mental disorders. As many as 75% have alcohol or other substance abuse disorders. These inmates need more than just physical health care.
In the United States, prisoners have a constitutional right to healthcare that meets community standards. The Supreme Court case "Estelle v. Gamble" established this right. Failure to provide care that meets these guidelines might be considered "cruel and unusual punishment."
However, prisoners may need to advocate for their own care. They should understand their illness and make sure they get appropriate care in jail or prison.
Like the general population, many prisoners may not know if they are infected with HIV. Not all prisons and jails offer HIV testing. In others, testing is required. About 15 state prisons require testing at entry. A few require it during custody. Others require testing before release.
Testing positive in a prison or jail facility may cause problems based on the rules of the facility. Prisoners with HIV have almost no privacy regarding their HIV status. They may be housed separately from non-infected inmates. They may be blocked from some work assignments.
At some institutions there are inmate peer educators. They might be a good resource and can provide a support network for HIV+ inmates.
Some facilities have no health care provider who knows about HIV care. Others have some access to HIV specialists. Fortunately, prisoners have been helped by overall advances in HIV treatment. AIDS-related deaths in state prisons decreased 82% from 1995 to 2004.
Basic principles of HIV therapy are the same inside or outside of a correctional system. The goals of therapy are the same (see Fact Sheet 404):
HIV treatment in prisons and jails is influenced by many factors, including:
Prisoners can improve their chances of getting good HIV health care if they bring information with them. This includes:
Even when an inmate provides good information, there can be a delay in getting their HIV medications. Prisoners cannot bring their own medications with them. This delay or interruption in treatment increases the risk of resistance (see Fact Sheet 405).
Several studies have found that most HIV-positive inmates are infected before they enter prison. HIV risk behaviors often continue inside the institution. These include injecting drug use, tattooing, body piercing, and consensual and nonconsensual sexual activities. The lack of sterile drug paraphernalia leads to needle sharing in prison. Needle sharing among soon-to-be released prisoners is high.
Incarcerated people face several additional health risks. Rates of hepatitis C (see Fact Sheet 507) are very high in prisons and jails. Hep C is transmitted very easily in blood, or through tattooing or sexual activity. Tattoos received in prison are linked with increased risk for hepatitis B and C. Condoms are not allowed in most jails or prisons.
An inmate's health is a critical factor in how well they make the transition to life back in their community. Getting a referral to an AIDS services agency is very important. Prisoners may need help finding housing, employment, and support services. If you are a prisoner who is getting ready to be released, consider visiting the library or asking a friend or family member to send you the address of a local AIDS service organization. They may be able to help you get set up with some referrals before your release.
Incarceration, Sex With an STI- or HIV-Infected Partner, and Infection With an STI or HIV in Bushwick, Brooklyn, N.Y.: A Social Network Perspective
This article was provided by AIDS InfoNet. Visit AIDS InfoNet's website to find out more about their activities and publications.