Early formulations used up to 30 pills a day. A new capsule formulation has been created that allows for better absorption into the body. This new formulation should allow for twice-a-day dosing as well as fewer pills per day.
Tipranavir is also being studied together with ritonavir (Norvir), which greatly boosts its levels. It is hoped that this combination will be useful for people with protease inhibitor resistance. Its development was delayed due to the formulation problem and the fact that it was sold by its original owner, from Pharmacia & Upjohn to Boehringher Ingelheim. Wider access to the drug will probably occur in 2002.
BMS-232632: Bristol-Myers Squibb's first protease inhibitor is designed for once daily dosing. Lab studies suggest that it may remain sensitive to viruses resistant to other protease inhibitors, but it remains to be seen whether this will be the case in people.
One study shows that the drug is reasonably potent. About 60% of the participants achieved viral loads below 400 copies HIV RNA and 40% were below 50 copies after 16 weeks. The most common side effects seen so far are mild-to-moderate diarrhea and elevated bilirubin levels (a measure of liver function), which normalized after stopping or reducing the drug to the lowest dose studied.
Tenofovir: Studies show that Gilead Sciences' tenofovir is significantly more potent against HIV than their other drug, adefovir. Tenofovir is also dosed once a day and lab studies suggest that it remains active against most NRTI-resistant viruses. Furthermore, studies show that there are few or no kidney side effects, a common problem with adefovir. Tenofovir is likely to be approved before the end of 2001. The drug is available free of charge under a limited expanded access program for people unable to make an effective combination without it. Call Project Inform's Hotline for more info.
Studies show that T-20 is effective as third line therapy, even in people who are resistant to all current protease inhibitors. Getting a long-lasting response, however, requires it to be paired with at least one other anti-HIV drug that the person still responds to. Pentafuside has to be given through injection under the skin (subcutaneously) twice a day.
The only significant side effects reported so far are problems at the injection site, ranging from minor discomfort to long-lasting bruises and sores. This can limit a person using the drug since there are only a few places where the injections can be given.
For information on how to participate in drug trials, call 1-800-TRIALS-A or go online to http://hivinsite.ucsf.edu.
The FDA approved using peg-interferon alone and not combined with ribavirin (Rebetol). One large study showed that Peg-Intron was about twice as effective in controlling HCV replication than standard interferon-alfa. However, more people developed mild bone marrow suppression.
The results of peg-interferon alone are comparable to those seen with standard HCV therapy (standard interferon-alfa and ribavirin, bundled as Rebetron). However, more recent results suggest that combining peg-interferon with ribavirin will be more effective. Dosed subcutaneously, peg-interferon is dosed only once a week while standard interferon-alfa is dosed three times. Another pegylated interferon-alfa (Pegasys) being developed by Hoffman-La Roche is expected to be approved before the end of 2001. This, too, will be dosed once a week.
Back to the Project Inform WISE Words July 2001 contents page.