||Potentially Infectious Levels of Intermittent HIV Shedding Can Occur in Seminal Fluid Despite Years of Suppressive HAART, Research Suggests|
Prameet Sheth and Anne-Genevieve Marcelin, Pharm.D., Ph.D., offer the latest salvo in the fervent debate triggered by the release of the so-called "Swiss statement" in 2008. These findings suggest that a male patient can experience spontaneous, periodic shedding of HIV into his seminal fluid despite having consistently undetectable viral load levels in his blood.
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In many ways, last year was a disaster for HIV vaccine research. Headline-grabbing failures led some to begin wondering if we would ever find a vaccine that works. So where are we now -- and were the failures of last year truly as disastrous as some claimed? We sat down with Mitchell Warren, executive director of the AIDS Vaccine Advocacy Coalition, to talk about the current state of HIV vaccine development.
- Topical PrEP Comparison: Tenofovir Alone May Be as Effective as Tenofovir/FTC, Study Finds
Walid Heneine, Ph.D., explains the results of a study in macaques which found that a topical gel offered complete protection against SIV infection -- regardless of whether that gel contained tenofovir alone or tenofovir in combination with emtricitabine.
- Human Trial of Vaginal Microbicide Gel PRO 2000 Finds Some Level of HIV Protection
Salim Abdool Karim, M.D., Ph.D., reveals that PRO 2000 appeared to confer 30 percent protection compared to placebo in women using the gel as a vaginal microbicide, though the results failed to reach statistical significance. Meanwhile, another microbicide candidate, BufferGel, failed to show any protective effect whatsoever.
- Early Expiration May Be Cause of Unusually High False-Positive Rates on OraQuick Rapid HIV Tests, Study Finds
Experts have long been mystified by the sporadic clusters of false-positive results when using the OraQuick Advance Rapid HIV-1/2 Antibody Test. But Shelley Facente, M.P.H., and other researchers in California may have found the culprit: The tests appear to significantly lose their specificity as they near their expiration date.
- Intermittent Oral PrEP May Be as Effective as Daily Oral PrEP for Prevention of Rectal HIV Transmission, Macaque Study Suggests
Gerardo Garcia-Lerma, Ph.D., presents data from a macaque study utilizing a unique method of pre-exposure prophylaxis: oral tenofovir/emtricitabine administered just once prior to exposure, followed by a second dose shortly after exposure.
- Overall Estimate of People Living With HIV in the U.S. Grows: 21 Percent, Mostly Minorities, Undiagnosed
An interview with Michael Campsmith, D.D.S., M.P.H.
- Number of HIV-Infected Women Giving Birth in U.S. Increased 40% From 2000 to 2006, Estimates Show
An estimated increase in the number of HIV-infected women giving birth in the U.S. from 2000 to 2006 is encouraging, but it also raises concerns about the evolving epidemic, according to data presented by Suzanne Whitmore, Dr.Ph.
- Maternal HAART Use During Breastfeeding Can Significantly Reduce Mother-to-Child Transmission Among Women With Low CD4+ Cell Counts, Study Finds
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- Clinicians Often Fail to Test for HIV After Diagnosing AIDS-Defining Illnesses, U.S. Study Suggests
Judy Chen, M.D., M.S.H.S., presents an analysis of 7,451 patients enrolled in private U.S. health insurance plans. The study found that clinicians frequently fail to even consider the possibility that a patient may be infected with HIV, even though the patient has been diagnosed with a potentially AIDS-defining event for which there often is virtually no other possible cause.
- Sudden Drop Observed in Transmitted HIV Drug Resistance Among Cohort of Recently Infected San Francisco Patients
Vivek Jain, M.D., presents data from a cohort of 266 patients with acute and early HIV infection, among whom a sudden drop in the prevalence of transmitted HIV drug resistance occurred in 2008 -- dramatically reversing a general upward trend over the previous four years.
- High HIV Prevalence Found Among Male Partners of Thai Sex Workers
Using a unique (and highly effective) means of recruitment, Neha Shah, M.D., M.P.H., colleagues discovered HIV prevalence rates of 20% or greater among male clients of female sex workers in Thailand. Among non-paying partners of those sex workers, Shah et al noted only slightly lower prevalence rates -- as well as inconsistent levels of condom use.
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- Anti-HIV Gel Shows Promise in Large-Scale Study in Women
- Seminal HIV: Cell-Free Virus, Not Infected Cells, Leads to Transmission Between Men
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- Failure to Prevent AIDS Infections Spurs Renewed Hunt for Cure
Please note: Knowledge about HIV changes rapidly. Note the date of this summary's publication, and before treating patients or employing any therapies described in these materials, verify all information independently. If you are a patient, please consult a doctor or other medical professional before acting on any of the information presented in this summary. For a complete listing of our most recent conference coverage, click here.