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Drug Side Effects Chart

November 2003

A note from TheBody.com: Since this article was written, the HIV pandemic has changed, as has our understanding of HIV/AIDS and its treatment. As a result, parts of this article may be outdated. Please keep this in mind, and be sure to visit other parts of our site for more recent information!

This chart may not adequately reflect the percentages of side effects in women due to the limited number of women in many studies of these drugs.

The colors underneath each drug heading below indicate the rough percentage of people reporting each side effect for each drug. See key at the bottom of each section.


  Reported in > 15% of people in clinical studies   Reported in 5–15% of people in clinical studies   Reported in < 5% of people in clinical studies
(blank) Side effect has not been reported C Reported only in children, or more commonly in children Potentially fatal side effect

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Protease Inhibitors (PI)

Drug Effects on Lab Values
  APV ATV fos
APV
IDV LPV NFV RTV SQV
(hgc)
SQV
(sgc)
Anemia (low red blood/hemoglobin count)                  
Leukopenia (low white blood cell count)                  
Neutropenia (low neutrophil count)                  
Thrombo-
cytopenia (low platelet count)
        C        
Elevated Alkaline Phosphatase (liver)                  
Elevated Amylase (pancreas)                  
Elevated Bilirubin (liver)         C        
Elevated Cholesterol                  
Elevated Creatinine (kidney)                  
Elevated Glucose (blood sugar)                  
Elevated Liver Functions                  
Elevated Triglycerides (cholesterol)                  
Drug Side Effects
  APV ATV fos
APV
IDV LPV NFV RTV SQV
(hgc)
SQV
(sgc)
Abdominal pain                  
Altered taste                  
Anorexia (reduced appetite)                  
Arthralgia (joint pain)                  
Chills                  
Constipation                  
Depression                  
Diarrhea                  
Dizziness                  
Fatigue                  
Fevers                  
Headache                  
Insomnia (sleep problems)                  
Malaise                  
Menstrual Irregularities                  
Myalgia (muscle pain)                  
Nausea                  
Nephrolithiasis (kidney stones)                  
Neurological Symptoms                  
Neuropathy (pain/tingling in arms arms/legs/hands/feet)         C          
Pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas)
Paresthesia (numbness, prickling, tingling)                  
Rash      
Seizures                  
Vomiting                  


APV = Amprenavir;     ATV = Atazanavir;      fosAPV = Fosamprenavir;     IDV = Indinavir;
LPV = Lopinavir + RTV;     NFV = Nelfinavir;     RTV = Ritonavir;
SQV(hgc) = Saquinavir hard gel capsule;   SQV(sgc) = Saquinavir soft gel capsule

  Reported in > 15% of people in clinical studies   Reported in 5–15% of people in clinical studies   Reported in < 5% of people in clinical studies
(blank) Side effect has not been reported C Reported only in children, or more commonly in children Potentially fatal side effect

 

Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NNRTIs)

Drug Effects on Lab Values
  DLV EFV NVP
Anemia (low red blood/hemoglobin count)      
Leukopenia (low white blood cell count)      
Neutropenia (low neutrophil count)      
Thrombocytopenia (low platelet count)      
Elevated Alkaline Phosphatase (liver)      
Elevated Amylase (pancreas)      
Elevated Bilirubin (liver)      
Elevated Cholesterol      
Elevated Creatinine (kidney)      
Elevated Glucose (blood sugar)      
Elevated Liver Functions      
Elevated Triglycerides      
Drug Side Effects
  DLV EFV NVP
Abdominal pain      
Altered taste      
Anorexia (reduced appetite)      
Arthralgia (joint pain)      
Chills      
Constipation      
Depression      
Diarrhea      
Dizziness      
Fatigue      
Fevers      
Headache      
Insomnia (sleep problems)      
Malaise      
Menstrual Irregularities      
Myalgia (muscle pain)      
Nausea      
Nephrolithiasis (kidney stones)      
Neurological Symptoms      
Neuropathy (pain/tingling in arms/legs/hands/feet)      
Pancreatitis (inflammation of pancreas)  
Paresthesia (numbness, prickling, tingling)      
Rash
Seizures      
Vomiting      


DLV = Delavirdine;     EFV = Efavirenz;     NVP = Nevirapine

  Reported in > 15% of people in clinical studies   Reported in 5–15% of people in clinical studies   Reported in < 5% of people in clinical studies
(blank) Side effect has not been reported C Reported only in children, or more commonly in children Potentially fatal side effect

 

Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NRTIs)

Drug Effects on Lab Values
  3TC ABV AZT combivir trizivir ddC ddI & ddI-EC d4T FTC TNV
Anemia (low red blood/hemoglobin count)                    
Leukopenia (low white blood cell count)                    
Neutropenia (low neutrophil count)                    
Thrombocytopenia (low platelet count)     C              
Elevated Alkaline Phosphatase (liver)                    
Elevated Amylase (pancreas)                    
Elevated Bilirubin (liver)                    
Elevated Cholesterol                    
Elevated Creatinine (kidney)                    
Elevated Glucose (blood sugar)                    
Elevated Liver Functions                    
Elevated Triglycerides (cholesterol)                    
Drug Side Effects
  3TC ABV AZT combivir trizivir ddC ddI & ddI-EC d4T FTC TNV
Abdominal pain                    
Altered taste                    
Anorexia (reduced appetite)                    
Arthralgia (joint pain)                    
Chills                    
Constipation                    
Depression                    
Diarrhea                    
Dizziness                    
Fatigue                    
Fevers                    
Headache                    
Insomnia (sleep problems)                    
Malaise                    
Menstrual Irregularities                    
Myalgia (muscle pain)                    
Nausea                    
Nephrolithiasis (kidney stones)                    
Neurological Symptoms                    
Neuropathy (pain/tingling in arms/legs/hands/feet)                    
Pancreatitis (inflammation of pancreas)  
Paresthesia (numbness, prickling, tingling)                    
Rash  
Seizures                    
Vomiting                    


ABV=Abacavir;     Combivir = AZT + 3TC;     Trizivir = AZT + 3TC + ABV
FTC=Emtricitabine;     TNV = Tenofovir

  Reported in > 15% of people in clinical studies   Reported in 5–15% of people in clinical studies   Reported in < 5% of people in clinical studies
(blank) Side effect has not been reported C Reported only in children, or more commonly in children Potentially fatal side effect

 

Entry Inhibitors (EIs)

Drug Effects on Lab Values
  T20
Anemia (low red blood/hemoglobin count)  
Leukopenia (low white blood cell count)  
Neutropenia (low neutrophil count)  
Thrombocytopenia (low platelet count)  
Elevated Alkaline Phosphatase (liver)  
Elevated Amylase (pancreas)  
Elevated Bilirubin (liver)  
Elevated Cholesterol  
Elevated Creatinine (kidney)  
Elevated Glucose (blood sugar)  
Elevated Liver Functions  
Elevated Triglycerides  
Drug Side Effects
  T20
Abdominal pain  
Altered taste  
Anorexia (reduced appetite)  
Arthralgia (joint pain)  
Chills  
Constipation  
Depression  
Diarrhea  
Dizziness  
Fatigue  
Fevers  
Headache  
Insomnia (sleep problems)  
Malaise  
Menstrual Irregularities  
Myalgia (muscle pain)  
Nausea  
Nephrolithiasis (kidney stones)  
Neurological Symptoms  
Neuropathy (pain/tingling in arms/legs/hands/feet)  
Pancreatitis (inflammation of pancreas)  
Paresthesia (numbness, prickling, tingling)  
Rash
Seizures  
Vomiting  


T20 = Enfuvirtide

  Reported in > 15% of people in clinical studies   Reported in 5–15% of people in clinical studies   Reported in < 5% of people in clinical studies
(blank) Side effect has not been reported C Reported only in children, or more commonly in children Potentially fatal side effect

Other Side Effect Warnings

All Anti-HIV Drugs

Changes in body fat distribution, called lipodystrophy, have been associated both with HIV infection and anti-HIV therapy. A warning about lipodystrophy is now included in the label information for all anti-HIV drugs.

All Nucleoside Analogs

A build-up of lactic acid in the body (lactic acidosis) and severe liver enlargement (hepatomegaly) with fatty liver (steatosis), including fatal cases, have been reported with using NRTIs alone or in combination. Fatal lactic acidosis has been reported in pregnant women who took d4T (stavudine, Zerit) and ddI (didanosine, Videx) with other anti-HIV drugs. The combination of d4T and ddI should be used with caution during pregnancy.

AZT

AZT (zidovudine, Retrovir) has been associated with low neutrophil counts (neutropenia) and severe reductions in red blood cells (anemia), particularly in patients with advanced HIV disease. Prolonged use of AZT has been associated with muscle weakness (myopathy).

Abacavir

Fatal hypersensitivity reactions have occurred in up to 8.5% of people taking abacavir (Ziagen). People with fever, skin rash, fatigue, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, and/or respiratory symptoms are advised to call their doctor immediately and stop using abacavir if directed, as soon as a hypersensitivity reaction is suspected. Once abacavir treatment is stopped, it should be permanently discontinued as a more severe reaction may recur within hours if it is restarted and may include life-threatening symptoms and death.

d4T/ddI

Fatal and non-fatal inflammation in the pancreas (pancreatitis) has occurred with the combination of d4T and ddI. Neither d4T nor ddI should be used in people with suspected or confirmed pancreatitis.

Enfuvirtide

Nearly 100% of people using enfuvirtide (T20, Fuzeon) will have injection site reactions including redness, inflammation, pain and hardening of the skin.

 

Antibiotics

Drug Effects on Lab Values
  Anti-MAC Anti-PCP Anti-CMV Anti-
fungal
Azithro-
mycin
Clarithro-
mycin
Rifa-
butin
Bactrim/
Septra
Dapsone Aero.
Penta-
midine
Cidofovir Gancy-
clovir
(IV)
Fos-
carnet
Flucon-
azole
Anemia (low red blood/
hemoglobin count)
                   
Leukopenia (low white blood cell count)                    
Neutropenia (low neutrophil count)                    
Thrombo-
cytopenia
(low platelet count)
                   
Elevated Alkaline Phosphatase (liver)                    
Elevated Amylase (pancreas)                    
Elevated Bilirubin (liver)                    
Elevated Cholesterol                    
Elevated Creatinine (kidney)                    
Elevated Glucose (blood sugar)                    
Elevated Liver Functions                    
Elevated Triglycerides (cholesterol)                    
Drug Side Effects
  Anti-MAC Anti-PCP Anti-CMV Anti-
fungal
Azithro-
mycin
Clarithro-
mycin
Rifa-
butin
Bactrim/
Septra
Dapsone Aero.
Penta-
midine
Cido-
fovir
Gancy-
clovir(IV)
Fos-
carnet
Flucon-
azole
Abdominal pain                    
Altered taste                    
Anorexia (reduced appetite)                    
Arthralgia (joint pain)                    
Chills                    
Constipation                    
Depression                    
Diarrhea                    
Dizziness                    
Fatigue                    
Fevers                    
Headache                    
Insomnia                    
Malaise                    
Menstrual Irregularities                    
Myalgia (muscle pain)                    
Nausea                    
Nephrolithiasis (kidney stones)                    
Neurological Symptoms                    
Neuropathy                    
Pancreatitis                  
Paresthesia (numbness, prickling, tingling)                    
Rash C ‡    
Seizures                    
Vomiting C C                

 

  Reported in > 15% of people in clinical studies   Reported in 5–15% of people in clinical studies   Reported in < 5% of people in clinical studies
(blank) Side effect has not been reported C Reported only in children, or more commonly in children Potentially fatal side effect

A note from TheBody.com: Since this article was written, the HIV pandemic has changed, as has our understanding of HIV/AIDS and its treatment. As a result, parts of this article may be outdated. Please keep this in mind, and be sure to visit other parts of our site for more recent information!



  
  • Email Email
  • Printable Single-Page Print-Friendly
  • Glossary Glossary
  • PDF PDF

This article was provided by Project Inform. Visit Project Inform's website to find out more about their activities, publications and services.
 
See Also
Side Effect Chart: An Abbreviated, At-a-Glance Guide to HIV Drug Side Effects
More on HIV Medication Side Effects
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