U.N. Official Says Women Need to Be Empowered in Fight Against HIV/AIDS
October 17, 2008
Women must be empowered and respected, particularly by men, in the fight against HIV/AIDS, Nafis Sadik, United Nations special envoy for HIV/AIDS in the Asia-Pacific region, said Friday at a poverty alleviation conference in Beijing, Reuters reports. According to Sadik, lack of respect for women is a primary reason for the spread of the virus.
Conference on HIV/AIDS, Gender Violence Calls for Joint Efforts To Fight Disease
According to a World Health Organization report released at the meeting, 39% of sexually active girls in South Africa say they have been forced to have sex. Inter Press Service reports that sexual and gender violence also is widespread in East Africa, where countries such as Kenya have continued to record an increase in the number of sexually abused women and girls. WHO has called on national HIV/AIDS plans to address sexual violence because the risk of HIV transmission is greater when sex is forced. Nduku Kilonzo, director of Liverpool VCT Care and Treatment, said, "Sexual violence is fundamentally a public health problem that oftentimes results in HIV/AIDS. We know that due to violence, many women are prone to the risk of contracting HIV/AIDS. For this reason, we must start to look at sexual and gender-based violence as a key intervention when addressing HIV/AIDS."
Inter Press Service reports that despite international and regional tools such as U.N. declarations that require signatories to address violence against women and girls, it "is argued that lax implementation of these instruments stems from the fact that there are no sanctions or punitive measures against countries that fail to adhere to them." Although there are increasing calls for laws to address sexual violence, marital rape is becoming a more serious issue, according to Inter Press Service. In most African countries, laws do not consider marital rape as a form of sexual violence, which puts women at an increased risk of HIV from their husbands. For example, the WHO report cited three studies in India in which more than 80% of HIV-positive women were monogamous -- a situation that is reflected in several parts of Africa, where even women who know their partner is HIV-positive are unable to practice safer sex. Vivian Sebahire, coordinator of Solidarity Women for Development in the Congo, said, "Many women are afraid to say no to sex with their spouses because they may be beaten. They cannot even ask their partners to use condoms because they will be battered or suspected to be having other affairs. In the end, they are forced to have sex without protection and may end up getting infected."
To address the situation, some experts and analysts argue that countries must enact laws that recognize and specifically address sexual violence in order to effectively fight HIV/AIDS, Inter Press Service reports (Mulama, Inter Press Service, 10/15).
This article was provided by Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. It is a part of the publication Kaiser Daily HIV/AIDS Report. Visit the Kaiser Family Foundation's website to find out more about their activities, publications and services.