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Notes

Part of Left Behind: Black America -- A Neglected Priority in the Global AIDS Epidemic

August 2008

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  55. Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, Kaiser Family Foundation Survey of Americans on HIV/AIDS: Part Three -- Experiences and Opinions by Race/Ethnicity and Age, August 2004.

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  58. Chase M, McKay B, Upward Revision of U.S. AIDS Cases Likely, Wall Street Journal, 1 December 2007. CDC is expected to publish revised current and historical estimates of HIV incidence in 2008, but such estimates had not been released as of publication of this report.

  59. CDC, 2006 HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report, 2008.

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  64. Food and Agriculture Organization, AIDS -- A threat to rural Africa, 2003. See Voeten H et al., Sexual Behavior Is More Risky in Rural Than in Urban Areas Among Young Women in Nyanza Province, Kenya, Sex Trans Dis 2004;31:481-487.

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  69. UNAIDS, Practical Guidelines for Intensifying HIV Prevention: Towards Universal Access, 2007.

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  71. See USAID, Synergy Project, What Happened in Uganda? A Case Study -- Declining Prevalence, Behavior Change and the National Response, 2002.

  72. See Bing EG et al., Research Needed to More Effectively Combat HIV among African-American Men Who Have Sex with Men, J Natl Med Assn 2008;100:52-56; Darbes LA et al., Systematic Review of Behavioral Prevention Interventions to Prevent HIV Infection in Communities of Color, University of California San Francisco, 2006.

  73. See Lyles CM et al., Best-Evidence Interventions: Findings from a Systematic Review of HIV Behavioral Interventions for U.S. Populations at High Risk, 2000-2004, Am J Pub Health 2007;97:133-143.

  74. Bearinger LH et al. (2007). Global perspectives on the sexual and reproductive health of adolescents: patterns, prevention and potential, Lancet 369:1220-1231.

  75. See Global Coalition on Women and AIDS, Keeping the Promise: An Agenda for Action on Women and AIDS, 2006.

  76. Harawa NT et al., Associations of race/ethnicity with HIV prevalence and HIV-related behaviors among young men who have sex with men in 7 urban centers in the US, J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2004;35:526-536.

  77. Halifors DD et al., Sexual and Drug Behavior Patterns and HIV and STD Racial Disparities: The Need for New Directions, Am J Pub Health 2007;97:125-132.

  78. See Halperin DT, Epstein H, Why is HIV prevalence so severe in southern Africa.? The role of multiple concurrent partnerships and lack of male circumcision -- implications for HIV prevention, South African J HIV Med 2007;8:19-41.

  79. Wyatt GE et al., African-American Sexuality and HIV/AIDS: Recommendations for Future Research, J Natl Med Assn 2008;100:44-50. See Fullilove RE et al., An Epidemic No One Wants to Talk About, Washington Post, 21 March 2008, at A17.

  80. Adimora AA et al., Concurrent Sexual Partnerships Among Men in the United States, Am J Pub Health 2007;97:2230-2237.

  81. The U.S. incarcerates more people than any other country in the world -- 2.3 million in 2006. (Bureau of Justice Statistics, Corrections Statistics, Accessed 18 May 2008.) Black men in America are most likely to be incarcerated, experiencing an imprisonment rate that is 6.6 times higher than among white males. (Sabol WJ et al., Prison and Jail Inmates at Midyear 2006, Bureau of Justice Statistics, 2007.) Accounting for only 13% of the U.S. population, Blacks comprise 44% of all correctional inmates in the U.S. (Sabol, 2007.) Estimates suggest that more than one in four Black men (28.5%) in the US will be imprisoned sometime during their lives. (Bonczor JP, Beck AJ, Lifetime Likelihood of Going to State or Federal Prison, Bureau of Justice Statistics, Accessed 18 May 2008.)

  82. Bramon D, Families and Incarceration, in Mauer M, Chesney-Lind M, eds, Invisible Punishment: The Collateral Consequences of Mass Imprisonment, 2002 (cited in Harawa N, Adimora A, Incarceration, African Americans and HIV: Advancing a Research Agenda, J Natl Med Assn 100:57-61).

  83. Adimora, 2006.

  84. UNAIDS, AIDS Epidemic Update, 2007.

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  93. See Dunkel et al., Gender-based violence, relationship power, and risk of HIV infection among women attending antenatal clinics in South Africa, Lancet 2004;363:1415-1421; Marnan S et al., HIV-1 positive women report more lifetime experiences with violence: Findings from a voluntary HIV-1 counseling and testing clinic in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Am J Pub Health 2002;92:1331=1337.

  94. See UNAIDS, 2008.

  95. See Barker G et al., Engaging men and boys in changing gender-based inequity in health: Evidence from programme interventions, World Health Organization, Geneva, 2007.

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  98. GET CITATION FROM KAI

  99. CDC, Trends in HIV/AIDS Diagnoses Among Men Who Have Sex with Men -- 33 States, 2001-2006, MMWR 2008;57:681-686.

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  119. See multiple citations in Wyatt GE, 2008.

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  123. See Kegeles SM et al., The intersection of stigma and HIV in young African American men who have sex with men's (YAAMSM) lives, International Conference on AIDS, abstract no. WePeD6400, 2004.

  124. Kaisernetwork.org, Discrimination, Stigma Against MSM Hindering HIV/AIDS Programs in Senegal, Globe and Mail Reports, 4 June 2008.

  125. Human Rights Watch, Hated to Death: Homophobia, Violence and Jamaica's HIV/AIDS Epidemic, 2004, accessed 29 June 2008.

  126. Nyakairu F, Uganda Shuns Gays in Anti-HIV Drive, Reuters, 2 June 2008 (summarized in Kaiser Daily HIV/AIDS Report, Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 3 June 2008).

  127. See Pisani E et al., HIV, syphilis infection, and sexual practices among transgenders, male sex workers, and other men who have sex with men in Jakarta, Indonesia, Sex Transm Infect 2004;80:536-540.

  128. Clements-Nolle K et al., HIV prevalence, risk behaviors, health care use, and mental health status of transgender persons: implications for public health intervention, Am J Pub Health 2001;91:915-921.

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  130. Herbst JH et al., Estimating HIV Prevalence and Risk Behaviors of Transgender Persons in the United States: A Systematic Review, AIDS & Behavior 2008;12:1-17.

  131. Keatley.

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  133. See UNAIDS, 2008.

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  135. Human Rights Watch, Thai AIDS Treatment Action Group, Barriers to HIV/AIDS Treatment for People Who Use Drugs in Thailand, 2007; International Treatment Preparedness Coalition, Missing the Target #5: Improving AIDS Drug Access and Advancing Health Care for All, 2007.

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  140. The frequency of HIV transmission in correctional settings in the U.S. remains a topic of some debate. Because few prison systems in the U.S. test inmates for HIV upon discharge, a definitive estimate of HIV incidence in correctional populations has not proven feasible. A retrospective study by the CDC of the Georgia state prison system suggests that HIV transmission among inmates may be rarer than some believe. (CDC, HIV Transmission Among Male Inmates in a State Prison System -- Georgia, 1992-2005, MMWR 2006;55:421-426.) The Georgia study, though, found that Black inmates were at highest risk of having HIV infection.

  141. UNAIDS reports that comprehensive HIV prevention and treatment services for imprisoned drug users are available in only three countries. UNAIDS, Report on the global AIDS epidemic, 2008.

  142. Harawa & Adimora, 2008 (citing Braithwaite RL, Arriola KR, Male prisoners and HIV prevention: a call to action ignored, Am J Pub Health 2003;93:759-763; Hammett TM, HIV/AIDS and other infectious diseases among correctional inmates: transmission, burden and an appropriate response, Am J Pub Health 2006;96:974-978).

  143. Lines R et al. (2006). Needle Exchange: Lessons from a Comprehensive Review of International Evidence and Experience. Canadian HIV/AIDS Legal Network, Toronto.

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  145. Harawa & Adimora, 2008 (citing Sylla M, HIV Treatment in US Jails and Prisons, Bulletin of Experimental Treatments for AIDS, in press, www.sfaf.org/beta/).

  146. Maruschak, 2008.

  147. Wilson D et al., HIV Prevention, Care and Treatment in Two Prisons in Thailand, PLoS Med 2007;e204.

  148. Hanna DB et al., Concurrent HIV/AIDS Diagnosis Increases the Risk of Short-Term HIV-Related Death among Persons Newly Diagnosed with AIDS, AIDS Patient Care STDS 2007;20 (e-pub ahead of print).

  149. See WHO et al., Towards Universal Access: Scaling up priority HIV/AIDS interventions in the health sector, 2008.

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  152. District of Columbia Department of Health, 2007.

  153. MacKeller DA et al., Unintentional HIV exposures from young men who have sex with men who disclose being HIV-negative, AIDS 2006;20:1637-1644. See Millett G et al., Explaining disparities in HIV infection among black and white men who have sex with men: a meta-analysis of HIV risk behaviors, AIDS 2007;21:2083-2091.

  154. CDC MSM Survey, 2006.

  155. Murrill CS et al., 2008.

  156. See UNAIDS, 2008.

  157. Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, Pew Global Attitudes Project, A Global Look at Public Perceptions of Health Problems, Priorities and Donors, 2007, accessed 26 May 2008.

  158. See Buseh AG, Stevens PE, Constrained but not determined by stigma: Resistance by African American women living with HIV, Women & Health 2007;44:1-18; Foster PH, Use of stigma, fear and denial in development of a framework for prevention of HIV/AIDS in rural African American communities, Family & Community Health 2007;30:318-327; Moutsiakis DL, Chin PN, Why Blacks do not take part in HIV vaccine trials, J Natl Med Assn 2007;99:254-257; Emiet CA, Understanding HIV Stigma and Disclosure Among Older Adults Living with HIV/AIDS, Society for Social Work and Research, 14 January 2006, accessed 1 May 2008.

  159. See UNAIDS, 2008; Commission on AIDS in Asia, Redefining AIDS in Asia: Crafting an Effective Response, 2008.

  160. UNAIDS, Reducing HIV Stigma and Discrimination: a critical part of national AIDS programmes, A resource for national stakeholders in the HIV response. Geneva, 2008 (UNAID Stigma Report).

  161. CDC, The Role of STD Detection and Treatment in HIV Prevention -- CDC Fact Sheet, 2008, accessed 9 June 2008.

  162. Sexually transmitted infections facilitate HIV transmission and acquisition by causing genital ulcers that expose blood or membranes to HIV and by activating immune cells that are especially receptive to the virus. In the 1990s, studies on the potential of STI control to reduce HIV incidence reached seemingly contrary conclusions in Tanzania and Uganda. Subsequent analysis of these findings led to agreement that STI control may be a more potent tool for HIV prevention at an earlier stage of an epidemic, before infection is widely generalized. (For a discussion of these trial results, see UNAIDS, WHO, Consultation on STD interventions for preventing HIV: What is the evidence? 2000.) At the International AIDS Conference in Toronto in 2006, WHO sponsored an international expert consultation to review evidence on STI control for HIV prevention, resulting in agreement that focused STI interventions can help slow the spread of HIV. (WHO, Treatment for sexually transmitted infections has a role in HIV prevention, News release, 16 August 2006.

  163. CDC, Sexually Transmitted Disease Surveillance, 2005, CDC, 2006.

  164. Forhan S et al., Prevalence of Sexually Transmitted Infections and Bacterial Vaginosis among Female Adolescents in the United States: Data from the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES), 2003-2004, 2008 National STD Prevention Conference, Oral Abstract D4a, 11 March 2008.

  165. Millett G et al., 2007; Torian LV et al., HIV infection in men who have sex with men, New York City Department of Health sexually transmitted disease clinics, 1990-1999: A decade of serosurveillance finds that racial disparities and associations between HIV and gonorrhea persist, Sex Transm Dis 2002;29:73-78. See CDC, STDs in Men Who Have Sex with Men: Sexually Transmitted Disease Surveillance, 2005, accessed 18 May 2008.

  166. Kraut-Becher J et al., Examining Racial Disparities in HIV: Lessons From Sexually Transmitted Infections Research, J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2008;47(Supp. 1):S20-S27.

  167. See Johnson LF et al., Sentinel surveillance of sexually transmitted infections in South Africa: a review, Sex Transm Infect 2005;81:287-293; Yourad MV, Torgal J, STD prevalence & representations of AIDS among university students in Angola, Cap Verde, Mozambique, STome, International Conference on AIDS, July 2000, abstract no. TuPeD3614.

  168. Hogrefe W et al., Detection of herpes simplex virus type 2-specific immunoglobulin G antibodies in African sera by using recombinant gG2, Western Blotting, and gG2 inhibition, J Clin Microbiol 2002;40:3635-3640.

  169. Watson-Jones D et al., Effect of Herpes Simplex Suppression on Incidence of HIV among Women in Tanzania, New Eng J Med 2008;358:1560-1571.

  170. Levine RS et al., Black-White Mortality From HIV in the United States Before and After Introduction of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy in 1996, Am J Pub Health 2007;97:1884-1892.

  171. New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, HIV Epidemiology Program -- 1st Semiannual Report, April 2006.

  172. New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, October 2007.

  173. District of Columbia Department of Health, 2007.

  174. UNAIDS, 2008.

  175. Antiretroviral Therapy in Lower Income Countries Collaboration, ART Cohort Collaboration Groups, Mortality of HIV-1-infected patients in the first year of antiretroviral therapy: comparison between low-income and high-income countries, Lancet 2006;367:817-824.

  176. Beck E, Walensky RP, The Outcome and Impact of Ten Years of HAART, in A Decade of HAART (Zuniga JM et al., eds.), Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK, 2008.

  177. Bergier EM et al., New York City's HIV-Related Health Disparities: Surveillance Data Guides Public Health Action, New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, XVI International AIDS Conference, Toronto, 2006, accessed 16 June 2008.

  178. New York City Departments of Health and Mental Hygiene and Homeless Services, The Health of Homeless Adults in New York City, December 2005, accessed 16 June 2008.

  179. UNAIDS, 2008.

  180. For a history of the Minority AIDS Initiative, see Aragón R, Kates J, The Minority AIDS Initiative, Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2004, accessed 9 June 2008.

  181. See Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, U.S. Federal Funding for HIV/AIDS: The FY2009 Budget Request, April 2008 (Kaiser 2008 Funding Report); Summers T, Kates J, Trends in U.S. Government Funding for HIV/AIDS: Fiscal Years 1981 to 2004, March 2004.

  182. Kaiser 2008 Funding Report; Summers T, Kates J, March 2004; Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, Federal Funding for HIV/AIDS: The FY2005 Budget Request, February 2004.

  183. Summers T, Kates J, March 2004.

  184. Kaiser 2008 Funding Report.

  185. Since national goals were established for Health People 2010, the federal government added an indicator tracking the number of HIV/AIDS cases in adolescents and adults, relying on surveillance data from 33 states with mature reporting systems. Trends in new diagnoses, however, do not necessarily reflect actual HIV incidence and do not constitute an estimate of the number of HIV infections prevented as a result of federally-financed prevention programs. As of August 2007, no national target had been established for the indicator on HIV/AIDS diagnoses. (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Progress Review -- HIV -- Healthy People 2010, 30 August 2007, accessed 9 June 2008.

  186. See UNAIDS, HIV Prevention Needs and Successes: A Tale of Three Countries, 2001.

  187. Piot, 2008.

  188. See Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, U.S. Federal Funding for HIV/AIDS: The FY2009 Budget Request, 2008 (Kaiser Funding Report).

  189. Kaiser Funding Report, 2008.

  190. Schackman B, Lifetime Cost of Current HIV Care in the United States, Medical Care 2006;44:990-997.

  191. Funders Concerned About AIDS, U.S. Philanthropic Commitments for HIV/AIDS 2005 & 2006, 2007.

  192. See UNAIDS, 2008.

  193. United Nations Development Program, Thailand's Response to HIV/AIDS: Progress and Challenges, 2004, accessed 10 June 2008.





  
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