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Anal Cancer Treatment Options by Stage

June 13, 2008

A link to a list of current clinical trials is included for each treatment section. For some types or stages of cancer, there may not be any trials listed. Check with your doctor for clinical trials that are not listed here but may be right for you.

Stage 0 (Carcinoma in Situ)

Treatment of stage 0 is usually local resection.

Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's PDQ Cancer Clinical Trials Registry that are now accepting patients with stage 0 anal cancer.

Stage I Anal Cancer

Treatment of stage I anal cancer may include the following:

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  • Local resection.
  • External-beam radiation therapy with or without chemotherapy. If cancer remains after treatment, additional chemotherapy and radiation therapy may be given to avoid the need for a permanent colostomy.
  • Internal radiation therapy.
  • Abdominoperineal resection, if cancer remains or comes back after treatment with radiation therapy and chemotherapy.
  • Internal radiation therapy for cancer that remains after treatment with external-beam radiation therapy.

Patients who have had treatment that saves the sphincter muscles may receive follow-up exams every 3 months for the first 2 years, including rectal exams with endoscopy and biopsy, as needed.

Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's PDQ Cancer Clinical Trials Registry that are now accepting patients with stage I anal cancer.

Stage II Anal Cancer

Treatment of stage II anal cancer may include the following:

  • Local resection.
  • External-beam radiation therapy with chemotherapy. If cancer remains after treatment, additional chemotherapy and radiation therapy may be given to avoid the need for a permanent colostomy.
  • Internal radiation therapy.
  • Abdominoperineal resection, if cancer remains or comes back after treatment with radiation therapy and chemotherapy.
  • A clinical trial of new treatment options.

Patients who have had treatment that saves the sphincter muscles may receive follow-up exams every 3 months for the first 2 years, including rectal exams with endoscopy and biopsy, as needed.

Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's PDQ Cancer Clinical Trials Registry that are now accepting patients with stage II anal cancer.

Stage IIIA Anal Cancer

Treatment of stage IIIA anal cancer may include the following:

  • External-beam radiation therapy with chemotherapy. If cancer remains after treatment, additional chemotherapy and radiation therapy may be given to avoid the need for a permanent colostomy.
  • Internal radiation therapy.
  • Abdominoperineal resection, if cancer remains or comes back after treatment with chemotherapy and radiation therapy.
  • A clinical trial of new treatment options.

Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's PDQ Cancer Clinical Trials Registry that are now accepting patients with stage IIIA anal cancer.

Stage IIIB Anal Cancer

Treatment of stage IIIB anal cancer may include the following:

  • External-beam radiation therapy with chemotherapy.
  • Local resection or abdominoperineal resection, if cancer remains or comes back after treatment with chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Lymph nodes may also be removed.
  • A clinical trial of new treatment options.

Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's PDQ Cancer Clinical Trials Registry that are now accepting patients with stage IIIB anal cancer.

Stage IV Anal Cancer

Treatment of stage IV anal cancer may include the following:

  • Surgery as palliative therapy to relieve symptoms and improve the quality of life.
  • Radiation therapy as palliative therapy.
  • Chemotherapy with radiation therapy as palliative therapy.
  • A clinical trial of new treatment options.

Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's PDQ Cancer Clinical Trials Registry that are now accepting patients with stage IV anal cancer.



  
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This article was provided by National Cancer Institute.
 
See Also
General Information About Anal Cancer
More on Anal Cancer and HIV/AIDS

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