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AIDS Surveillance -- General Epidemiology

May 22, 2008


Slide 1: Estimated Number of AIDS Cases and Deaths Among Adults and Adolescents With AIDS, 1985-2006 -- United States and Dependent Areas The upper curve represents estimated AIDS incidence (number of new cases); the lower one represents the estimated number of deaths of adults and adolescents with AIDS.  The peak in 1993 was associated with the expansion of the AIDS surveillance case definition implemented in January 1993. The overall declines in new AIDS cases and deaths of persons with AIDS are due in part to the success of highly active antiretroviral therapies, introduced in 1996.  In recent years, AIDS incidence and deaths of persons with AIDS have leveled.  The data have been adjusted for reporting delays.
Slide 1
Estimated Number of AIDS Cases and Deaths Among Adults and Adolescents With AIDS, 1985-2006 -- United States and Dependent Areas
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Slide 2: Reported AIDS Cases and Deaths, Cumulative through 2006 -- United States and Dependent Areas From the beginning of the epidemic through 2006, a total of 992,865 cases of AIDS were reported to CDC.  Of the 983,343 adults and adolescents reported with AIDS, 544,015 (55%) have died. Of the 9,522 children younger than 13 years reported with AIDS, 5,579 (59%) have died.  Slides containing information on leading causes of death in the United States, including HIV infection and AIDS, are available at http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/topics/surveillance/resources/slides/mortality/index.htm.
Slide 2
Reported AIDS Cases and Deaths, Cumulative through 2006 -- United States and Dependent Areas
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Slide 3: Reported AIDS Cases, by Age and Sex, Cumulative through 2006 -- United States and Dependent Areas This slide shows the distribution of AIDS cases, by age at diagnosis and sex. From the beginning of the epidemic through 2006, a total of 992,865 cases of AIDS have been reported to CDC: 80% were in males and 20% in females.  Most of the cases were diagnosed when the men and women were 25-49 years of age.
Slide 3
Reported AIDS Cases, by Age and Sex, Cumulative through 2006 -- United States and Dependent Areas
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Slide 4: Estimated Number of Adults and Adolescents Living With AIDS, by Sex, 1993-2006 -- United States and Dependent Areas This slide shows increases in the number of adults and adolescents living with AIDS in the United States and dependent areas from 1993 through 2006. The increase is due primarily to the widespread use of highly active antiretroviral therapy, introduced in 1996, which has delayed the progression of AIDS to death.  At the end of 2006, an estimated 447,720 adults and adolescents were living with AIDS; of these, 77% were males and 23% were females.  The data have been adjusted for reporting delays.
Slide 4
Estimated Number of Adults and Adolescents Living With AIDS, by Sex, 1993-2006 -- United States and Dependent Areas
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Slide 5: Estimated Number of Persons Living With AIDS, by Race/Ethnicity, 1993-2006 -- United States and Dependent Areas The estimated number of persons living with AIDS in the United States and dependent areas increased from 169,246 at the end of 1993 to 448,871 at the end of 2006. Increases in the number of persons living with AIDS occurred in all racial/ethnic groups.  From 1993 through 2006, the number of blacks (not Hispanic) living with AIDS increased from 58,914 to 192,278. At the end of 1997, the number of blacks living with AIDS exceeded the number of whites (not Hispanic) living with AIDS.  From 1993 through 2006, the number of whites living with AIDS increased from 76,589 to 154,767. The number of Hispanic persons living with AIDS increased from 30,398 to 91,970.  (On slide 6, Asians/Pacific Islanders and American Indians/Alaska Natives are shown on a different scale.)  The data have been adjusted for reporting delays.
Slide 5
Estimated Number of Persons Living With AIDS, by Race/Ethnicity, 1993-2006 -- United States and Dependent Areas
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Slide 6: Estimated Number of Asians/Pacific Islanders and of American Indians/Alaska Natives Living With AIDS, 1993-2006 -- United States and Dependent Areas On slide 5, the estimated number of Asians/Pacific Islanders and American Indians/Alaska Natives living with AIDS is shown with the other racial/ethnic groups; on this slide, a different scale is used for the vertical axis.  From 1993 through 2006, the number of Asians/Pacific Islanders living with AIDS increased from 1,155 to 4,573. The number of American Indians/Alaska Natives living with AIDS increased from 539 to 1,653.  The data have been adjusted for reporting delays.  Slides containing more information on HIV and AIDS in racial and ethnic minorities are available at http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/topics/surveillance/resources/slides/race-ethnicity/index.htm.
Slide 6
Estimated Number of Asians/Pacific Islanders and of American Indians/Alaska Natives Living With AIDS, 1993-2006 -- United States and Dependent Areas
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Slide 7: Estimated Number of Adults and Adolescents Living With AIDS, by Region, 1993-2006 -- 50 States and D.C. The estimated number of adults and adolescents living with AIDS in each region of the 50 states and the District of Columbia increased from 1993 through 2006. This increase is due primarily to the widespread use of highly active antiretroviral therapy, introduced in 1996, which has delayed the progression of AIDS to death.  At the end of 2006, an estimated 177,075 (41%) of adults and adolescents living with AIDS resided in the South, 125,294 (29%) in the Northeast, 86,339 (20%) in the West, 46,871 (11%) in the Midwest.  The data have been adjusted for reporting delays.  Regions of residence are defined as follows: Northeast -- Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont Midwest -- Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, Wisconsin South -- Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, West Virginia West -- Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, Wyoming
Slide 7
Estimated Number of Adults and Adolescents Living With AIDS, by Region, 1993-2006 -- 50 States and D.C.
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Slide 8: Proportion of AIDS Cases Among Adults and Adolescents, by Race/Ethnicity and Year of Diagnosis, 1985-2006 -- United States and Dependent Areas The proportional distribution of AIDS cases among racial/ethnic groups has changed since the beginning of the epidemic. The proportion of AIDS cases in whites (not Hispanic) has decreased while the proportions in blacks (not Hispanic) and Hispanics have increased. The proportion of AIDS cases among Asians/Pacific Islanders and American Indians/Alaska Natives has remained relatively constant, at approximately 1% of all cases.  Of persons diagnosed with AIDS in the United States and dependent areas in 2006, 48% were black, 29% were white, 21% were Hispanic, 1% were Asian/Pacific Islander, and less than 1% were American Indian/Alaska Native.  The data have been adjusted for reporting delays.  Slides containing more information on HIV and AIDS in racial and ethnic minorities are available at http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/topics/surveillance/resources/slides/race-ethnicity/index.htm.
Slide 8
Proportion of AIDS Cases Among Adults and Adolescents, by Race/Ethnicity and Year of Diagnosis, 1985-2006 -- United States and Dependent Areas
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Slide 9: Proportion of AIDS Cases Among Adults and Adolescents, by Transmission Category and Year of Diagnosis, 1985-2006 -- United States and Dependent Areas  The proportional distribution of AIDS cases by transmission category has shifted since the beginning of the epidemic. In 1985, male-to-male sexual contact accounted for 64% of all AIDS cases; in 2006, this transmission category accounted for 43% of all AIDS cases.  The proportion of AIDS cases attributed to injection drug use increased during 1985-1994 and then slightly decreased, accounting for 19% of cases in 2006.  The proportion of AIDS cases attributed to male-to-male sexual contact and injection drug use decreased from 9% in 1985 to 5% in 2006.  The proportion of AIDS cases attributed to high-risk heterosexual contact increased from 3% in 1985 to 32% in 2006.  The remaining AIDS cases were those attributed to hemophilia or the receipt of blood or blood products and those in persons without an identified risk factor.  The data have been adjusted for reporting delays and cases without risk factor information were proportionally redistributed.
Slide 9
Proportion of AIDS Cases Among Adults and Adolescents, by Transmission Category and Year of Diagnosis, 1985-2006 -- United States and Dependent Areas
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Slide 10: Proportion of AIDS Cases Among Adults and Adolescents, by Sex and Transmission Category, Diagnosed in 2006 -- 50 States and D.C. Of AIDS cases diagnosed in 2006 among male adults and adolescents, 59% were attributed to male-to-male sexual contact and 16% were attributed to injection drug use. Approximately 17% of cases were attributed to high-risk heterosexual contact and 7% were attributed to male-to-male sexual contact and injection drug use.  Most (73%) of the AIDS cases diagnosed in 2006 among female adults and adolescents were attributed to high-risk heterosexual contact, and 24% were attributed to injection drug use.  The data have been adjusted for reporting delays and cases without risk factor information were proportionally redistributed.
Slide 10
Proportion of AIDS Cases Among Adults and Adolescents, by Sex and Transmission Category, Diagnosed in 2006 -- 50 States and D.C.
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Slide 11: AIDS Rates, Reported in 2006 -- United States and Dependent Areas For cases reported in 2006, AIDS rates (cases per 100,000) are shown for each state, the District of Columbia, American Samoa, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands.  Areas with the highest rates in 2006 were the District of Columbia, the U.S. Virgin Islands, Maryland, New York, and Florida. The District of Columbia is a metropolitan area. Use caution when comparing its AIDS rate to state AIDS rates.
Slide 11
AIDS Rates, Reported in 2006 -- United States and Dependent Areas
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Slide 12: Proportion of AIDS Cases and Population by Race/Ethnicity, Reported in 2006 -- 50 States and D.C. The pie chart on the left illustrates the distribution of AIDS cases reported in 2006 among racial/ethnic groups.  The pie chart on the right shows the distribution of the U.S. population (excluding U.S. dependent areas) in 2006.  Blacks (not Hispanic) and Hispanics are disproportionately affected by the AIDS epidemic in comparison with their proportional distribution in the general population.  In 2006, blacks made up 13% of the population but accounted for 49% of reported AIDS cases in the 50 states and the District of Columbia.  Hispanics made up 15% of the population but accounted for 19% of reported AIDS cases.  Whites (not Hispanic) made up 67% of the U.S. population but accounted for 30% of reported AIDS cases.  More information on the HIV/AIDS epidemic and HIV prevention among blacks and Hispanics is available in a CDC fact sheet at http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/resources/factsheets/index.htm.
Slide 12
Proportion of AIDS Cases and Population by Race/Ethnicity, Reported in 2006 -- 50 States and D.C.
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Slide 13: Estimated Number of AIDS Cases and Rates for Male Adults and Adolescents, by Race/Ethnicity, 2006 -- 50 States and D.C.  For male adults and adolescents, in 2006 the AIDS diagnosis rate (AIDS cases per 100,000) for blacks (not Hispanic) (82.9) was more than 7 times as high as whites (not Hispanic) (11.2) and more than twice as high as the rate for Hispanics (31.3).  Relatively few cases were diagnosed among Asian/Pacific Islander and American Indian/Alaska Native males, although the rate for American Indian/Alaska Native males (12.2) was higher than that for white males.  The data have been adjusted for reporting delays.
Slide 13
Estimated Number of AIDS Cases and Rates for Male Adults and Adolescents, by Race/Ethnicity, 2006 -- 50 States and D.C.
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Slide 14: Estimated Number of AIDS Cases and Rates for Female Adults and Adolescents, by Race/Ethnicity 2006 -- 50 States and D.C. For female adults and adolescents, in 2006 the AIDS diagnosis rate (AIDS cases per 100,000) for blacks (not Hispanic) (40.4) was 21 times as high as whites (not Hispanic) (1.9).  The estimated number of AIDS cases diagnosed among females in 2006 was similar for Hispanics and whites, but the rate for Hispanics (9.5) was 5 times as high as whites.  Relatively few cases were diagnosed among Asian/Pacific Islander and American Indian/Alaska Native females, although the rate for American Indian/Alaska Natives (3.6) was nearly twice the rate for white females.  The data have been adjusted for reporting delays.
Slide 14
Estimated Number of AIDS Cases and Rates for Female Adults and Adolescents, by Race/Ethnicity 2006 -- 50 States and D.C.
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Slide 15: Proportion of AIDS Cases Among Adults and Adolescents, by Region and Size of Place of Residence, Diagnosed in 2006 -- 50 States and D.C.   In 2006, approximately 46% of all AIDS cases among adults and adolescents were in the South, followed by the Northeast (26%), the West (16%), and the Midwest (11%).  In each region, most AIDS cases among adults and adolescents were in large metropolitan areas (populations of more  than 500,000).  States in the Midwest and the South had the largest proportion of AIDS cases among adults and adolescents from smaller metropolitan areas (populations of 50,000 to 500,000).  In 2006, the South was the region with the largest proportion of AIDS cases among adults and adolescents from non- metropolitan areas.  The data have been adjusted for reporting delays.  Regions of residence are defined as follows: Northeast -- Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont Midwest -- Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, Wisconsin South -- Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, West Virginia West -- Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, Wyoming
Slide 15
Proportion of AIDS Cases Among Adults and Adolescents, by Region and Size of Place of Residence, Diagnosed in 2006 -- 50 States and D.C.
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Slide 16: Estimated Number and Proportion of AIDS Cases Among Adults and Adolescents, by Transmission, Diagnosed in 2006 -- United States and D.C.  This slide shows the distribution of transmission categories among AIDS cases diagnosed in 2006.  Approximately 43% of the 36,790 AIDS cases diagnosed in 2006 among adults and adolescents were attributed to male-to-male sexual contact.  An additional 5% were attributed to male-to-male sexual contact and injection drug use.  Injection drug use accounted for 18% of AIDS incidence, and high-risk heterosexual contact accounted for another 32%.  The data have been adjusted for reporting delays and cases without risk factor information were proportionally redistributed.
Slide 16
Estimated Number and Proportion of AIDS Cases Among Adults and Adolescents, by Transmission, Diagnosed in 2006 -- United States and D.C.
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Slide 17: Estimated Number and Proportion of AIDS Cases Associated With Injection Drug Use, by Transmission Category, Diagnosed in 2006 -- United States and Dependent Areas   An estimated 10,706 AIDS cases diagnosed in 2006 were associated with injection drug use.  Approximately 84% of AIDS cases associated with injection drug use were in persons who inject drugs.  Approximately 16% of AIDS cases associated with injection drug use were heterosexual sex partners of an injection drug user (IDU).  A very small proportion (<1%) of AIDS cases associated with injection drug use were in perinatally infected children whose mothers were IDUs or sex partners of an IDU.  The data have been adjusted for reporting delays and cases without risk factor information were proportionally redistributed.
Slide 17
Estimated Number and Proportion of AIDS Cases Associated With Injection Drug Use, by Transmission Category, Diagnosed in 2006 -- United States and Dependent Areas
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Slide 18: Estimated Number and Proportion of AIDS Cases Associated With Injection Drug Use, by Race/Ethnicity, Diagnosed in 2006 -- United States and Dependent Areas An estimated 10,706 AIDS cases diagnosed in 2006 were associated with injection drug use. This number includes cases in persons who were injection drug users (IDUs), sexual contacts of an IDU, or born to a mother who was an IDU or a sex partner of an IDU.  More than half of the cases associated with injection drug use were in blacks (not Hispanic) (50%).  Most of the remaining cases were in whites (not Hispanic) or Hispanics, although the percentage for Hispanics (22%) was almost equal to that of whites (25%). American Indians/Alaska Natives and Asians/Pacific Islanders each accounted for 1% of all cases.  The data have been adjusted for reporting delays and cases without risk factor information were proportionally redistributed.
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Estimated Number and Proportion of AIDS Cases Associated With Injection Drug Use, by Race/Ethnicity, Diagnosed in 2006 -- United States and Dependent Areas
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Slide 19: Reported AIDS Cases in Children < 13 Years of Age at Diagnosis, 2006 -- United States and Dependent Areas, N=93 In 2006, a total of 86 cases of AIDS in children younger than 13 years of age were reported; a decrease from 93 in 2005.  Most (86%) of these cases were perinatally acquired.  New York, Florida, Maryland, California, and Georgia reported the largest number of cases. In 2006, 30 areas did not report any pediatric AIDS cases.
Slide 19
Reported AIDS Cases in Children < 13 Years of Age at Diagnosis, 2006 -- United States and Dependent Areas, N=93
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Slide 20: Reported AIDS Cases, by Age Group at Diagnosis, Cumulative Through 2006 -- United States and Dependent Areas  Through 2006, a total of 992,865 persons with AIDS were reported. Persons between the ages of 25-44 years accounted for 71% of all reported cases.
Slide 20
Reported AIDS Cases, by Age Group at Diagnosis, Cumulative Through 2006 -- United States and Dependent Areas
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Slide 21: Adolescents 13-19 Years of Age Reported to be Living With AIDS During 2006 -- United States and Dependent Areas, N=3,116  At the end of 2006, a total of 3,116 adolescents, 13-19 years of age, were reported as living with AIDS in the United States and dependent areas.
Slide 21
Adolescents 13-19 Years of Age Reported to be Living With AIDS During 2006 -- United States and Dependent Areas, N=3,116
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Slide 22: Estimated Prevalence Rates for Adults and Adolescents Living With AIDS (per 100,000 Population), 2006 -- United States and Dependent Areas  In the United States and dependent areas, the prevalence rate of AIDS among adults and adolescents was estimated at 178.6 per 100,000 at the end of 2006. The rate for adults and adolescents living with AIDS ranged from an estimated 2.5 per 100,000 in American Samoa to an estimated 2,016.5 per 100,000 in the District of Columbia.  The District of Columbia is a metropolitan area. Use caution when comparing its AIDS rate to state AIDS rates.  The data have been adjusted for reporting delays.
Slide 22
Estimated Prevalence Rates for Adults and Adolescents Living With AIDS (per 100,000 Population), 2006 -- United States and Dependent Areas
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Slide 23: Estimated Prevalence Rates for Children <13 Years of Age Living With AIDS (per 100,000 Population), 2006 -- United States and Dependent Areas The prevalence rate of AIDS among children in the United States and dependent areas was estimated at 2.2 per 100,000 at the end of 2006.  The rate for children living with AIDS ranged from an estimated zero per 100,000 in American Samoa, Guam, Idaho, Montana, Northern Mariana Islands, and Utah to an estimated 36.5 per 100,000 in the District of Columbia. The District of Columbia is a metropolitan area, use caution when comparing its AIDS rate to state AIDS rates.  The data have been adjusted for reporting delays.
Slide 23
Estimated Prevalence Rates for Children <13 Years of Age Living With AIDS (per 100,000 Population), 2006 -- United States and Dependent Areas
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Slide 24: Proportion of Persons Surviving, by Number of Months After AIDS Diagnosis During 1998-2005 and by Year of Diagnosis -- United States and Dependent Areas Slide 24 is limited to data for AIDS cases diagnosed during 1998-2005 to describe the survival of persons whose diagnoses were made during that time.  Survival (the estimated proportion of persons surviving a given length of time after diagnosis) increased with the year of diagnosis for diagnoses made during 1998-2005. Year-to-year differences were small during 2000-2005.
Slide 24
Proportion of Persons Surviving, by Number of Months After AIDS Diagnosis During 1998-2005 and by Year of Diagnosis -- United States and Dependent Areas
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Slide 25: Proportion of Persons Surviving, by Number of Months After AIDS Diagnosis During 1998-2005 and by Age Group -- United States and Dependent Areas Slide 25 is limited to data for AIDS cases diagnosed during 1998-2005 to describe the survival of persons whose diagnosis was made during that time.  Survival decreased as age at diagnosis increased among persons at least 35 years old at diagnosis and in comparison with persons younger than 35. Survival was similar for age groups 13-24 and 25-34.
Slide 25
Proportion of Persons Surviving, by Number of Months After AIDS Diagnosis During 1998-2005 and
by Age Group -- United States and Dependent Areas
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Slide 26: Proportion of Persons Surviving, by Number of Months After AIDS Diagnosis During 1998-2005 and by Race/Ethnicity -- United States and Dependent Areas Slide 26 is limited to data for AIDS cases diagnosed during 1998-2005 to describe the survival of persons whose diagnosis was made during that time.  Survival was greater among Asians/Pacific Islanders, whites (not Hispanic), and Hispanics, than among blacks (not Hispanic).  Results must be interpreted with caution for American Indians/Alaska Natives because the numbers of persons in this racial/ethnic category were small.
Slide 26
Proportion of Persons Surviving, by Number of Months After AIDS Diagnosis During 1998-2005 and by Race/Ethnicity -- United States and Dependent Areas
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