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The "Drug-AIDS" Hypothesis

September 8, 2000


It is worth noting that some in the denialist camp not only claim that anti-HIV treatment is worthless, but that it actually causes AIDS. The most well known of such theorists is University of California Berkeley molecular biologist Peter Duesberg, who has proposed that AIDS in the U.S. and Europe is caused entirely by recreational drugs and antiretroviral medications, especially AZT.(25, 26) Many in the denialist movement who do not fully embrace Duesberg's hypothesis agree that anti-HIV drugs play a role in causing AIDS. Maggiore, for example, accuses AZT of killing HIV patients and suggests that all of the nucleoside analogues may constitute "AIDS by prescription."(27) Pasquarelli recently asserted that "the ONLY people dying are those who take poisonous AIDS drugs."(28) (emphasis in original)

Such theories are difficult to sustain in light of the data cited above, and the broader picture backs up the studies. During the period in which AIDS deaths dropped by two thirds, sales of the drugs condemned as "toxic DNA chain terminators" skyrocketed. Sales of Glaxo's antiretrovirals, led by AZT and 3TC, quadrupled between 1995 and 1999.(29) Bristol-Myers Squibb, the other leading maker of nucleoside drugs, also reported large sales increases.(30)

Since Duesberg's "drug-AIDS hypothesis" pins much of the blame on recreational drugs, it is plausible that a massive decline in recreational drug use might have overcome the exponential growth in use of allegedly murderous antiretrovirals, but the opposite appears to have happened. The government's major instrument for measuring rates of drug use, the National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, charted an almost unbroken rise in the use of illegal drugs during the 1990s. The survey noted substantial increases in use of many of the specific drugs Duesberg implicates in AIDS, including heroin, cocaine and inhalants.(31) While information on drug use by gay men, still disproportionately affected by AIDS, is less complete, there has been much discussion in the gay press and in popular books about increasingly heavy drug use in certain segments of the gay community, particularly the co-called "party circuit." At least one study has reported significant increases in both numbers of drug users and severity of drug use among young gay men from 1994 to 1997.(32)

Might it be that this increase in use of anti-HIV and recreational drugs hasn't had enough time to do damage? While theoretically possible, such a proposition would directly contradict the arguments Duesberg made throughout the 1990s. In making an epidemiological case for drugs as the cause of AIDS, he cited evidence that drug use -- as indicated by increases in drug-related arrests and hospital emergency room admissions -- had risen in tandem with AIDS cases during the 1980s.(25, 26) He has also argued that Kimberly Bergalis, famous for allegedly being infected with HIV by her dentist, was killed by AZT in just two years.(33)

The arguments that once seemed to bolster the drug-AIDS hypothesis now severely undercut it. And the evidence overwhelming demonstrates that HAART has played a large role in reducing AIDS deaths in the last several years.

This does not mean that antiretroviral drugs are benign or that their toxicities are not serious. Indeed, this and other HIV/AIDS publications have noted a growing movement away from the so-called "hit early and hard" approach precisely because the drugs now in use may well be too toxic for most patients to use indefinitely. There is much work to be done, both to develop new, safer treatments and to make better use of the ones we have.

Indeed, one of the tragedies of the denialist movement is that it has distracted attention from these issues. By forcing researchers and activists to take time and energy defending what has already been proven, it has diverted effort from critical questions regarding what sort of research is needed and how to speed the development of better, less toxic therapies.


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Copyright 2000 by John S. James. Permission granted for noncommercial reproduction, provided that our address and phone number are included if more than short quotations are used.


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