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Spotlight Series: HIV Stigma and Discrimination
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Learning from the Community

What Community-Based Organizations Say About Factors that Affect HIV Prevention Programs

September 2000

Introduction and Goals

In the fall of 1996, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announced funds for HIV prevention projects for minority and other community-based organizations (CBOs) serving populations at increased risk of acquiring or transmitting HIV infection (Program Announcement {PA} 704). Ninety-three CBOs were funded to conduct one or two of the following intervention types: individual level interventions, group level interventions, community level interventions, and street and community outreach interventions.

The Program Evaluation Research Branch (PERB) of CDC undertook an in-depth study of factors that help and hinder CBOs in their efforts to reach their target populations, deliver HIV prevention services, and provide referrals.

The goals of this study were to:

  1. Identify and explore factors that help and hinder CBOs in their efforts to reach their target populations, deliver HIV prevention interventions, and make referrals;


  2. Describe CBO collaboration;

  3. Identify the critical technical assistance needs of CBOs; and

  4. Provide an in-depth look at the above issues from the perspective of both managerial and front line CBO staff.

This report presents the highlights of this study. Quotations that appear in this document are included to illustrate and develop ideas, and they have been edited for clarity and to protect the confidentiality of respondents.


As indicated in Table 1, data were collected using the following methods in the respective order, focus group one, site visits, and then focus group two. In total, there were 45 respondents and 26 participating CBOs. Sixteen respondents were selected to represent their organization and participate in the focus groups with 8 persons in each group. Ten CBOs were selected for site visits. As part of the site visits, 29 formal interviews were conducted. All respondents solicited for recruitment in the study agreed to take part. Participation was voluntary and informed consent was obtained. All participants were selected to create a sample of CBOs that varied by intervention type, target population, and region of the country. Interview guides were developed based on the research questions, and were similar for both site visits and focus groups to help keep the data collection consistent.

Table 1. Data Collection Methodology
 Focus Group 1Site VisitsFocus Group 2TOTAL
Number of participating CBOs8 CBOs10 CBOs8 CBOs26 CBOs
Number of individuals participating8 (one representative from each selected CBO)29 semi-structured, formal interviews (interviews lasted approximately 1 hour)8 (one representative from each selected CBO)45 individual respondents

Data Analysis

QSR NUD*IST was used to manage and analyze the data. An initial coding scheme was developed prior to data collection and codes were continually refined and clarified as interviews were analyzed. Reports summarizing themes in the data were generated, allowing for an understanding of themes across the CBOs as well as an in-depth understanding of each case.

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This article was provided by U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Visit the CDC's website to find out more about their activities, publications and services.