The Body: The Complete HIV/AIDS Resource
Follow Us Follow Us on Facebook Follow Us on Twitter Download Our App 
Professionals >> Visit The Body PROThe Body en Espanol
  • Email Email
  • Printable Single-Page Print-Friendly
  • Glossary Glossary

No Turning Back

Addressing the HIV Crisis Among Men Who Have Sex with Men

November 2001


  1. CDC, HIV/AIDS Prevention Research Synthesis Project. Compendium of HIV Prevention Interventions with Evidence of Effectiveness. 1999.

  2. M. Becker & J. Joseph. AIDS and Behavioral Change to Reduce Risk: A Review. Am J Pub Health 1988;78:39-410.

  3. M. Morris & L. Dean. Effect of Sexual Behavior Change on Long-Term Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevalence Among Homosexual Men. Am J Epidemiol 1994;140:217-232.

  4. G. van Griensvan, M. Samuel, W. Winkelstein. The Success and Failure of Condom Use by Homosexual Men in San Francisco (Letter). J Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 1993;6:430-431.


  5. R. Stall, T. Coates, C. Hoff. Behavioral Risk Reduction for HIV Infection Among Gay and Bisexual Men: A Review of Results from the United States. Am Psychol 1989;43:878-885.

  6. R. Valdiserri, D. Lyter, L. Leviton et al. AIDS Prevention in Homosexual and Bisexual Men: Results of a Randomized Trial Evaluating Two Risk-Reduction Interventions. AIDS 1989;3;21-26.

  7. J. Kelly, J. St. Lawrence, H. Hood et al. Behavioral Intervention to Reduce AIDS-Risk Activities. J Counseling & Clinical Practice 1989;57:60-67.

  8. J. Kelly, J. St. Lawrence, Y. Stevenson et al. Community AIDS/HIV Risk Reduction: The Effects of Endorsements by Popular People in Three Cities. Am J Pub Health 1992;82:1483-1489.

  9. G. R. Seage III et al. Feasibility of Conducting HIV-1 Vaccine Trials in the United States: Recruitment, Retention and HIV-1 Sero-incidence from HIV Network for Prevention Trials Vaccine Preparedness Study. Abstract 43543. XII World AIDS Conference. Geneva, 1998.

  10. H. Weinstock et al. HIV Sero-incidence and Risk Factors Among Patients Repeatedly Tested for HIV Attending Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinics in the United States, 1991-1996. J Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 1998;19:506-512.

  11. S. Schwarcz et al. Difference in Temporal Trends of HIV Seroincidence and Seroprevalence Among Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinic Patients, 1989-1998: Application of Serologic Testing Algorithm for Recent HIV Seroconversion (STARHS). Am J Epidemiol 2001;153:925-934.

  12. CDC. HIV Incidence Among Young Men Who Have Sex with Men -- Seven U.S. Cities, 1994-2000. MMWR 2001;50:440-444.

  13. R. Wolitski, R. Valdiserri, P. Denning et al. Are We Headed for a Resurgence in the HIV Epidemic Among Men Who Have Sex with Men? Am J Pub Health 2001;91:883-888.

  14. K. Fox. Gonorrhea in the HIV Era: A Reversal in Trends Among Men Who Have Sex with Men. Am J Pub Health 2001;91:959-964.

  15. CDC, Outbreak of Syphilis Among Men Who Have Sex with Men -- Southern California, 2000. MMWR 2001;50:117-120.

  16. CDC. Consultation on Recent Trends in STD and HIV Morbidity and Risk Behaviors Among MSM. Meeting Report. Atlanta, GA, October 2000.

  17. L. Valleroy, D. MacKellar, J. Karon et al. HIV Prevalence and Associated Risks in Young Men Who Have Sex with Men.
    JAMA 2000;284(2):198-204.

  18. W. McFarland, S. Schwarcz, S. Tierney, M. Shriver. HIV Consensus Meeting Final Report. San Francisco Department of Public Health, AIDS Research Institute of the University of California San Francisco, Mayor's Office of AIDS and HIV Policy, San Francisco. 2001.

  19. CDC. Unpublished Data, 2001.

  20. R. Stall & D. Purcell. Intertwining Epidemics: A Review of Research on Substance Use Among Men Who Have Sex with Men and Its Connection to the AIDS Epidemic. AIDS & Behavior 2000;4:181-192.

  21. L. Valleroy, D. MacKellar, D. Rosen, G. Secura, and the Young Men's Survey Team. HIV Prevalence and Predictors of Unprotected Receptive Anal Intercourse for 15- to 22-Year- Old African American Men Who Have Sex with Men in Seven Urban Areas, U.S.A. CDC, Atlanta, GA. Abstract

  22. 210. XII International AIDS Conference. Geneva, 1998. Also based on CDC/nimh Unpublished Data from the Urban Men's Health Study.

  23. D. J. McKirnan, J. P. Stokes, L. Doll et al. Bisexually Active Gay Men: Social Characteristics and Sexual Behavior. J Sex Research 1995;32:64-75.

  24. J. Stokes, D. McKirnan, R. Burzette. Sexual Behavior, Condom Use, Disclosure of Sexuality, and Stability of Sexual Orientation in Bisexual Men. J Sex Research 1993;30:203-213.

  25. CDC. HIV/AIDS Among Racial/Ethnic Minority Men Who Have Sex with Men -- United States, 1989-1998. MMWR 2000;49:4-11.

  26. T. C. Mills, R. Stall, L. Pollack, J. P. Paul, D. Binson, J. Canchola, and J. A. Catania. Health-Related Characteristics of Men Who Have Sex with Men: A Comparison of Those Living in "Gay Ghettos" with Those Living Elsewhere. Am J Pub Health 2001;91:980-983.

  27. J. Peterson & A. Carballo-Dieguez. HIV Prevention Among African-American and Latino Men Who Have Sex with Men. In: J. Peterson & R. DiClemente, Eds. Handbook of HIV Prevention. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, 2000:217-224.

  28. J. Stokes & J. Peterson. Homophobia, Self-Esteem, and Risk for HIV Among African American Men Who Have Sex with Men. AIDS Ed & Prev 1998;10:278-292.

  29. M. Campsmith & D. Burgess. Race/Ethnicity and Gender Differences in Late HIV Testing. CDC, Atlanta, GA. Abstract 540. 2nd National HIV Prevention Conference. August, 2001.

  30. CDC. Adoption of Protective Behaviors Among Persons with Recent HIV Infection and Diagnosis -- Alabama, New Jersey, and Tennessee, 1997-1998. MMWR 2000;49:512-515.

  31. V. Mays. High-Risk HIV-Related Sexual Behaviors in a National Sample of U.S. Black Gay and Bisexual Men. IX International Conference on AIDS. Berlin, 1993.

  32. R. Diaz. Latino Gay Men and Psycho-Cultural Barriers to AIDS Prevention. In: M.P. Levin, P.M. Nardi et al. In Changing Times: Gay Men and Lesbians Encounter HIV/AIDS. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1997.

  33. G. Marin & B. V. Marin. Research with Hispanic Populations. In: Applied Social Research Methods Series, Vol. 23. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications, 1991.

  34. A. Carballo-Dieguez. The Challenge of Staying HIV-Negative for Latin American Immigrants. J Gay Lesbian Soc Serv 1998;8:61-82.

  35. R. Diaz et al. The Impact of Homophobia, Poverty, and Racism on the Mental Health of Gay and Bisexual Latino Men: Findings from 3 U.S. Cities. Am J of Pub Health 2001;91:927-932.

  36. T. Diaz, S. Chu, M. Frederick, P. Hermann et al. Sociodemographics and Risk Behaviors of Bisexual Men with AIDS: Results from a Multistate Interview Project. AIDS 1993;7(9):1227-1231.

  37. J. J. Kelly, S. Y. Chu, T. Diaz et al. Race/Ethnicity Misclassification of Persons Reported with AIDS. Ethnicity & Health 1996;1:87-94.

  38. J. Kelly, R. Hoffmann, D. Rompa et al. Protease Inhibitor Combination Therapies and Perceptions of Gay Men Regarding AIDS Severity and the Need to Maintain Safer Sex. AIDS 1998;12:F91-F95.

  39. J. Dilley, W. Wood, & W. MacFarland. Are Advances in Treatment Changing Views About High Risk Sex? New Eng J Med 1997;337:501-502.

  40. D. G. Ostrow, K. Fox, J. S. Chmiel, A. Silvestre, B. R. Visscher, P. Vanable, L. P. Jacobson, S. A. Strathdee. Attitudes Towards Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy Predict Sexual Risktaking among HIV-Infected and Uninfected Gay Men in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (macs). Abstract ThOrC719. XIII International Conference on AIDS. Durban, 2000.

  41. D. Ostrow. The Role of Drugs in the Sexual Lives of Men Who Have Sex with Men: Continuing Barriers to Researching This Question. AIDS & Behav 2000;4:205-219.

  42. C. Reback & C. Grella. HIV Risk Behaviors of Gay and Bisexual Male Methamphetamine Users Contacted Through Street Outreach. J Drug Issues 1999;29:155-166.

  43. C. Reback. Social Construction of a Gay Drug -- Methamphetamine Use Among Gay and Bisexual Males in Los Angeles. Funded by City of Los Angeles AIDS Coordinator's Office, 1997.

  44. G. Mansergh, G. Colfax, G. Marks et al. The Circuit Party Men's Health Survey: Findings and Implications for Gay and Bisexual Men. Am J Pub Health 2001;91:953-958.

  45. E. Lowy & M. Ross. It'll Never Happen to Me: Gay Men's Beliefs, Perception and Folk Constructions of Sexual Risk. AIDS Ed & Prev 1994;6(6):467-482.

  46. B. Dillon. Primary HIV Infections Associated with Oral Transmission. Abstract 473. 7th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections. San Francisco, CA, February 2000.

  47. R. Gold. Gay Men's Stereotypes about who is HIV Infected: a Further Study. Int J of STD & AIDS 1999;10(9):600-605

  48. R. Gold. Judging a Book by its Cover: Gay Men's Use of Perceptible Characteristics to Infer Antibody Status. Int J of STD & AIDS 1996;7(1):39-43

  49. T. McAuliffe, J. Kelly, K. Sikkema et al. Sexual HIV Risk Behavior Levels Among Young and Older Gay Men Outside of AIDS Epicenters: Findings of a 16-City Sample. AIDS & Behavior 1999;3:111-119.

  50. R. Stall, R. Hays, C. Waldo et al. The Gay '90s: A Review of Research in the 1990s on Sexual Behavior and HIV Risk Among Men Who Have Sex with Men. AIDS 2000;14(supp.)

  51. J.B.F. de Wit. The Epidemic of HIV Among Young Homosexual Men. AIDS 1996;10(supp.)

  52. R. van Griensven, B. Koblin, D. Osmond. Risk Behavior and HIV Infection Among Younger Homosexual Men. AIDS 1994;8(supp.)

  53. C. Gomez & Seropositive Urban Men's Study Team. Sexual HIV Transmission Risk Behaviors Among HIV- Seropositive (HIV+) Injection Drug Users and HIV+ Men Who Have Sex with Men: Implications for Interventions. Abstract 180. National HIV Prevention Conference. Atlanta, GA, August 1999.

  54. W. L. H. Whitington, T. Collis, D. Dithmer-Schreck, H. H. Handsfield, R. W. Wood, K. K. Holmes, and C. Celum. Bacterial STDs and Sexual Mixing of HIV-Discordant Men Who Have Sex with Men: A Recipe for HIV Transmission. University of Washington and Public Health Seattle & King County, Seattle, WA. Abstract 262. 8th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections. Chicago, IL, February 2001.

  55. I. G. Stolte, N. Dukers, J. B. F. de Wit, J. S. A. Fennema, J. Goudsmit, and R. A. Coutinho. Increases in STDs among Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM) and in Risk Behavior among HIV-Positive MSM in Amsterdam, Possibly Related to HAART Induced Immunologic and Virologic Improvements. Municipal Hlth. Service, Amsterdam; Univ. of Utrecht; and Academic Med. Ctr., Univ. of Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Abstract 261. 8th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections. Chicago, IL, February, 2001.

  56. N. Dukers. Risk Factors for Human Herpesvirus 8 Seropositivity and Seroconversion in a Cohort of Homosexual Men. Am J of Epidemiol 2000;151(3):213-224

  57. J. Martin. Invited Commentary: Determining Specific Sexual Practices Associated with Human Herpesvirus 8 Transmission. Am J of Epidemiol 2000;151(3):225-230

  58. UNAIDS. HIV Prevention Needs and Successes: A Tale of Three Countries. UNAIDS Best Practices Collection. 2001.

  59. N. Janz et al. Evaluation of 37 AIDS Prevention Projects: Successful Approaches and Barriers to Program Effectiveness. Health Ed Qtly 1996;23:80-97.

  60. D. Holtgrave, N. Qualls, J. Curran et al. An Overview of the Effectiveness and Efficiency of HIV Prevention Programs. Pub Health Rep 1995;110:134-146.

  61. M. Ruiz, A. Gable, E. Kaplan, M. Stoto, H. Fineberg, and J. Trussell, Eds. No Time to Lose: Getting More from HIV Prevention. Institute of Medicine, Committee on HIV Prevention Strategies in the United States. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2001.

  62. S. Kegeles. R. Hays, T. Coates. The Mpowerment Project: A Community-Level HIV Prevention Intervention for Young Gay Men. Am J Pub Health 1996;86:1129-1136.

  63. M. Rotheram-Borus, H. Reid, M. Rosario. Factors Mediating Changes in Sexual HIV Risk Behaviors Among Gay and Bisexual Male Adolescents. Am J Pub Health 1994;84:1938-1946.

  64. J. Hunter & R. Schaecher. AIDS Prevention for Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Adolescents. J Contemp Hum Serv 1994:346-354.

  65. M. S. Ross & J. A. Kelly. Interventions to Reduce HIV Transmission Among Homosexual Men. In: J. Peterson & R. DiClemente, Eds. Handbook of HIV Prevention. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, 2000:201-216.
Models used are for the purposes of illustration only and inferences should not be made regarding sexual orientation or health status.

  • Email Email
  • Printable Single-Page Print-Friendly
  • Glossary Glossary

This article was provided by U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Visit the CDC's website to find out more about their activities, publications and services.