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Fact Sheet: Sexuality and Underserved Youth in Communities of Color

June/July 2001

A note from TheBody.com: Since this article was written, the HIV pandemic has changed, as has our understanding of HIV/AIDS and its treatment. As a result, parts of this article may be outdated. Please keep this in mind, and be sure to visit other parts of our site for more recent information!

Adolescents comprise approximately 14 percent of the U.S. population. During the past 20 years the racial and ethnic makeup of this population has significantly shifted. Projections indicate that Hispanic, African-American, American Indian, and Asian adolescents will constitute 56 percent of the adolescent population by the year 2050.1 This Fact Sheet explores the challenges affecting the sexual health and development of these youth of color.


Sexual Behavior

  • 49.9 percent of high school students have had sexual intercourse during their lifetime: 52.2 percent males and 47.7 percent females.2

  • 71.2 percent of black, 54.1 percent of Hispanic, and 45.1 percent of white students have had sexual intercourse.3

  • Among males, 75.7 percent of black, 62.9 percent of Hispanic, and 45.4 percent of white students have had sexual intercourse. Among females, 66.9 percent of black, 45.5 percent of Hispanic, and 44.8 percent of white students have had sexual intercourse.4

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  • 8.3 percent of students have initiated sexual intercourse before the age of 13: males (12.2 percent) were significantly more likely than females (4.4 percent) to have initiated sexual intercourse before the age of 13.5

  • 20.5 percent of black, 9.2 percent of Hispanic, and 5.5 percent of white students have initiated sexual intercourse before the age of 13.6

  • Among males, 29.9 percent of black, 14.2 percent of Hispanic, and 7.5 percent of white students have initiated sexual intercourse before the age of 13. Among females, 11.4 percent of black, 4.4 percent of Hispanic, and 3.5 percent of white students have initiated sexual intercourse before the age of 13.7

  • 16.2 percent of students have had four or more sexual partners: 19.3 percent of males and 13.1 percent of females.8

  • 34.4 percent of black, 16.6 percent of Hispanic, and 12.4 percent of white students have had four or more sexual partners.9

A study analyzing HIV-related sexual behavior of a sample of 5,385 white and 408 Asian/Pacific Islander (API) high school students who participated in the national school-based Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS 1991) found that:10

  • White students were 2.72 times more likely sexually experienced than API students; roughly 50.36 percent of white students and 26.84 percent of API students had ever had sexual intercourse.

  • After controlling for academic performance, no significant differences were found between white and API students regarding the age of "initiating sex," the number of lifetime partners, and the proportion of students who reported being currently sexually active (having "had sex" during the past three months).

  • The median age reported for "initiating sex" by both white and API students was 15.

  • The median number of lifetime partners reported by both white and API students was two.

  • Of the students who reported they were sexually active, the number of partners during the past three months differed between white and API students. Among white students, 76.68 percent reported having one partner, 11.90 percent reported having two partners, and 11.42 percent reported having three or more partners. Among API students, 58.62 percent reported having one partner, 25.86 percent reported having two partners, and 15.52 percent reported having three or more partners.

A survey of 2,026 ninth to twelfth grade students (186 of which described themselves as API) in a Los Angeles county school district conducted in 1992 found that:11

  • 73 percent of API students reported they were virgins (never having had vaginal intercourse) compared to 28 percent of African-American, 43 percent of Latino, and 50 percent of white students.

  • 76 of API males and 70 percent of API females reported they were virgins.

  • Among non-virgins, API students were less likely than other students to have initiated sexual intercourse at an early age: 17 percent of API non-virgins had had sexual intercourse by 13 years of age compared to 46 percent of African-American, 36 percent of Latino, 28 percent of white, and 28 percent of "other" students.

  • API students were less likely than other students to have reported participating in almost all other heterosexual genital activities during the prior year. Other heterosexual genital activities included: masturbation by a partner, masturbation of a partner, fellatio with ejaculation, cunnilingus, and anal intercourse.

  • 16 percent of API virgins versus 85 percent of API non-virgins engaged in masturbation by a partner during the prior year.

  • 16 percent of API virgins versus 93 percent of API non-virgins engaged in masturbation of a partner during the prior year.

  • 4 percent of API virgins versus 69 percent of API non-virgins engaged in fellatio with ejaculation during the prior year.

  • 10 percent of API virgins versus 76 percent of API non-virgins engaged in cunnilingus during the prior year.

  • Zero percent of API virgins versus 20 percent of API non-virgins engaged in anal intercourse during the prior year.

  • API students in homes where English was the primary spoken language were more likely than other API students to report several heterosexual genital sexual activities.

  • 49 percent of API students reported engaging in vaginal intercourse more than 10 times during the year compared with 50 percent of African-American, 38 percent of Latino, 51 percent of white, and 34 percent of "other" students.

  • Among non-virgins, API students reported the lowest number of lifetime partners for vaginal intercourse: eight percent of API students had had more than five partners, compared with 38 percent of African-American, 21 percent of Latino, 20 percent of white, and 26 percent of "other" students.

A study reporting the findings of a questionnaire administered from November 1987 through July 1988 to 153 Asian-American students ranging from 18 to 25 years of age attending a Southern California University found that:12

  • 44 percent of men and 50 percent of women reported having engaged in heterosexual intercourse at least once in their lives.

  • Sexually active young adults began dating at a significantly younger age and had their first serious romantic attachment at a significantly younger age compared to respondents who were not sexually active.

  • Students born in the United States were significantly younger (16.6 years of age) at the age of first sexual intercourse than non-U.S.-born students (17.7 years of age).

  • Women were found significantly more sexually active than men in both the number of partners in the previous six months and sexual frequency in the previous month.

A study of 14,000 American Indian/Alaska Native adolescents in the seventh to twelfth grades who participated in the 1998-90 State of Native American Youth Health study found that:13

  • 30.9 percent of all students reported having had sexual intercourse: 35.1 percent of males and 27 percent of females.

  • The average age of first intercourse was 13.6 years for males and 14.2 years for females.

  • 65 percent of males and 56.8 percent of females had had sexual intercourse by the twelfth grade.

  • Of students having had sexual intercourse: 14.7 percent of males engaged in sexual intercourse once or twice, 30.6 percent engaged in sexual intercourse rarely (a few times a year or less), 22.6 percent engaged in sexual intercourse sometimes (one to four times per month), and 7.5 percent engaged in sexual intercourse frequently (several times a week). Among females, 16.9 percent engaged in sexual intercourse once or twice, 32.2 percent engaged in sexual intercourse rarely, 20.4 percent engaged in sexual intercourse sometimes, and 9.4 percent engaged in sexual intercourse frequently.

  • Students who suffered from physical and sexual abuse were more likely to have reported they had sexual intercourse than non-abused students: 49.3 percent of physically abused students compared with 28.1 percent of non-physically abused students; 50.3 percent of sexually abused students compared with 28.7 percent of non-sexually abused students.

  • 24.4 percent of males who reported never having had sexual intercourse reported having had some non-intercourse-based sexual relationships with a female. 16.4 percent of the females who reported never having had sexual intercourse reported having had sexual experiences short of intercourse with a male.

A study of 3,749 sexually experienced, reservation-based American Indian adolescents of diverse sexual orientations who participated in a national school-based survey conducted with 55 tribes in eight of the 12 Indian Health Service areas from 1988 through 1990 found that:14

  • Self-reported gay/bisexual males were more likely to have reported the onset of heterosexual intercourse at 13 years of age or younger (53.3 percent), compared to males unsure of their sexual orientation (46.1 percent) and heterosexually identified males (44.5 percent).

  • Self-reported lesbian/bisexual females (40.6 percent) and females unsure of their sexual orientation (44.6 percent) were more likely than their heterosexual female counterparts (28.5 percent) to have reported an age at first sexual intercourse of 13 years or younger.

  • Lesbian/bisexual females (16.7 percent) were twice as likely as females unsure of their sexual orientation (7.8 percent) and slightly more likely than heterosexual females (12.7 percent) to report having sexual intercourse several times a week.


Contraceptive Use

  • 58 percent of sexually active (having had intercourse three months preceding the survey) high school students reported that either they or their partner had used a condom during last sexual intercourse: 65.5 percent of males and 50.7 percent of females.15

  • 70 percent of black, 55.2 percent of Hispanic, and 55 percent of white students reported condom use during last sexual intercourse.16

  • Among males, 75.3 percent of black, 66.1 percent of Hispanic, and 63 percent of white students reported condom use during last sexual intercourse. Among females, 64.5 percent of black, 43 percent of Hispanic, and 47.6 percent of white students reported condom use during last sexual intercourse.17

  • 16.2 percent of active high school students reported that either they or their partner had used birth control pills before last sexual intercourse; white students (21 percent) were significantly more likely than Hispanic (7.8 percent) and black (7.7 percent) students to report birth control pill use before last sexual intercourse.18
A survey of 2,026 ninth to twelfth grade students (186 of which described themselves as API) in a Los Angeles county school district conducted in 1992 found that:19
  • 66 percent of API students used a condom at first vaginal intercourse compared with 36 percent of African-American, 33 percent of Latino, 58 percent of white, and 45 percent of "other" students.

  • Among API students who had engaged in vaginal intercourse during the preceding year, 36 percent used condoms all the time compared with 40 percent of African-American, 23 percent of Latino, 35 percent of white, and 42 percent of "other" students.

  • Twenty-six percent of API students who had engaged in vaginal intercourse during the preceding year reported they had never used condoms, compared with 14 percent of African-American, 27 percent of Latino, 16 percent of white, and 19 percent of "other" students.

A study reporting the findings of a questionnaire administered from November 1987 through July 1988 to 153 Asian-American students, ranging from 18 to 25 years of age attending a Southern California University found that:20

  • 31 percent of sexually experienced students reported they always use birth control during sexual intercourse.

  • 11 percent of students reported using condoms every time they are sexually active.

  • 77 percent of the students reported having used a condom for sexual intercourse at some point.

  • 93 percent of students reported engaging in sexual intercourse without condoms.

  • 66.7 percent of males and eighty-six percent of females reported they had at some point suggested the use of condoms to a sexual partner.

  • 63 percent of males and 86.4 percent of females also reported that a partner had suggested condom use at some point.

A study of 14,000 American Indian/Alaska Native adolescents in the seventh to twelfth grades who participated in the 1998-90 State of Native American Youth Health study found that:21

  • Forty percent of males and half of females who are sexually active reported they always used birth control.

  • 48.7 percent of male and 23.6 percent of females reported using condoms only.

  • Birth control pills were the second most popular form of contraception for females; 18.3 percent of all sexually active females were using the birth control pill. Older females were twice as likely to use the birth control pill than younger females.

  • Withdrawal was the primary contraception for about one-tenth of males and females; older adolescents were somewhat more likely to practice withdrawal.

  • Nearly a third of males and one in 5 females who were sexually active indicated that they rarely used birth control.

  • Well over a third of males and over half of females in grades seven through nine reported having had sexual intercourse and not using birth control. Percentages for older teens diminished to 25.1 percent for males and 38.6 percent for females.

A study of 3,749 sexually experienced, reservation-based American Indian adolescents of diverse sexual orientations who participated in a national school-based survey conducted with 55 tribes in eight of the 12 Indian Health Service areas from 1988 through 1990 found that:22

  • Gay/bisexual males and males unsure of their sexual orientation were more likely to have reported they rarely used contraceptives than their heterosexual male counterparts.

  • More than one in three gay/bisexual males (35.5 percent) and males unsure of their sexual orientation (37.5 percent) reported rarely using birth control as compared to 28 percent of heterosexual males.

  • Males unsure of their sexual orientation were more likely to have reported using unreliable methods of birth control (withdrawal, rhythm method, or no contraception).

  • Heterosexual females were most likely to have reported frequent contraceptive use while females unsure of their sexual orientation were least likely to do so.

  • Two out of three sexually experienced heterosexual females reported use of birth control often or always while half of lesbian/bisexual females and 44.7 percent of females unsure of their sexual orientation reported the same.

  • Nearly two out of five lesbian/bisexual females reported they rarely to never used birth control while one of five heterosexual females reported doing the same.

  • Two of three females unsure of their sexual orientation (66.2 percent) reported using unreliable methods of birth control (withdrawal, rhythm method, or no method), compared to just over half of heterosexual (51.7 percent) and lesbian/bisexual females (54.5 percent).


Sexually Transmitted Diseases

  • Approximately one-fourth of the 15 million new STD cases in the United States occur among adolescents.23

  • Chlamydia and gonorrhea are the most common STDs among adolescents. 40 percent of chlamydia cases are reported among 15 to 19 year old adolescents.24

  • Adolescent females 15 to 19 years of age had the highest rate of gonorrhea in 1999. African-American females of this age group reported a gonorrhea rate of 3,691 cases per 100,000, a rate 19 times greater than their non-Hispanic white counterparts. African-American males of this age group reported a gonorrhea rate of 1,996.5 per 100,000, a rate 52 times greater than their non-Hispanic white counterparts.25

  • 20 to 24 year old males have the highest gonorrhea rates and the third highest rates of primary and secondary syphilis.26

  • In 1998, over 11,500 new cases of STDs were reported among Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders. Among 15 to 24 year old Asian American and Pacific Islander females, chlamydia cases increased by 32.9 percent in 1998.27

A study in the Journal of Adolescent Health evaluating the medical records of 12,881 racial/ethnically diverse 16- to 24-year-old adolescents enrolled in 54 U.S. Job Corps training centers in 1996 found that:28

  • Among female adolescents, an estimated 9.2 percent tested positive for chlamydia, 2.7 percent tested positive for gonorrhea, and 0.4 percent tested positive for syphilis. Among male adolescents who were tested for gonorrhea and chlamydia, 14 percent tested positive for gonorrhea and 19 percent tested positive for chlamydia.

  • Rates for all three STDs were highest among African-American students. Native American females had the next highest rates of gonorrhea and chlamydia.

  • Among female respondents who tested positive for gonorrhea, 4.3 percent were African-American, 1.9 were Native American, 0.9 percent were white, 0.7 percent were Hispanic, and 0 percent were API.

  • Among female respondents who tested positive for chlamydia, 12 percent were African-American, 11.3 percent were Native American, 5.8 percent were white, 5.3 percent were Hispanic, and seven percent were API.

  • Half of all new HIV infections are thought to occur in young people under 25 years of age. It is estimated that young people between the ages of 13 to 25 are contracting HIV at the rate of two per hour.29

  • African-American and Hispanic young people make up roughly 15 percent of the U.S. adolescent population. However, African-American young people account for 60 percent of new AIDS cases, and Hispanic youth account for 24 percent of new cases.30

  • African-American adolescent females between the ages of 13 and 19 represent 15 percent of all U.S. adolescent females, yet they account for 66 percent of all AIDS cases reported among young women.31

  • A sample of 15- to 22-year-old young men who have sex with men in seven urban cities found HIV prevalence rates highest among young men of color: 14.1 percent among black, 13.4 percent among mixed, 6.9 percent among Hispanic, 6.7 percent among American Indian/Alaskan Native, 3 percent among API, and 3.3 percent among white.32

  • Among Asian and Pacific Islander males and females, AIDS case reported through December 1998 were concentrated among the 25 to 44 year olds, 73 percent for males and 64 percent for females.33


Pregnancy

  • More than 900,000 adolescents become pregnant annually.34

  • Adolescent pregnancy rates have declined nationwide since the 1990s: the rate for 15 to 19 year olds dropped 19 percent from its peak in 1991 of 116.5 per 1,000 to 94.3 per 1,000 in 1997.35

  • Among black 15- to 19-year-old adolescents, the nationwide pregnancy rate declined 20 percent between 1990 and 1996; for white adolescents of the same age group, the pregnancy rate declined 16 percent between 1990 and 1996.36

  • For Hispanic adolescents, pregnancy rates have declined only since 1994; an 11 percent decline occurred from 1994 to 1997.37

  • In 1996, adolescent pregnancy rates were more than twice as high among non-Hispanic black and Hispanic adolescents than non-Hispanic white adolescents.38

  • Nationally, birth rates for adolescents 15 to19 years of age declined 18 percent between 1991 and 1998 (51.1 live births per 1,000) for all racial/ethnic populations.39

  • Birth rates have sharply declined for black adolescents since 1991: 26 percent, from 115.5 per 1,000 in 1991 to 85.4 per 1,000 in 1998.40

  • For Hispanic adolescents, steady declines in birth rates have occurred only since 1994: from 107.7 per 1,000 in 1991 to 93.6 per 1, 000 in 1998, a thirteen percent decline in four years.41

  • Despite recent declines, birth rates for black and Hispanic adolescents are still higher than for other racial/ethnic groups: birth rates for non-Hispanic white adolescents declined 19 percent from 1991 to 1998 to 35.2 births per 1, 000 in 1998; for American Indian adolescents, birth rates declined 15 percent from 1991 to 1998 to 72.1 births per 1,000 in 1998; and API adolescents, birth rates declined 16 percent from 1991 to 1998 to 23.1 births per 1,000 in 1998.42

  • API adolescents had the lowest birth rate in 1998, 23.1 per 1,000 births.43

A study of 14,000 American Indian/Alaska Native adolescents in the seventh to twelfth grades who participated in the 1998-90 State of Native American Youth Health study found that:44

  • 5 percent of sexually active males reported they were aware of ever having caused a pregnancy.

  • Over a half of males who had caused a pregnancy reported they "had sex" at least monthly and one fifth reported having "had sex" several times a weeks.

  • 7.2 percent of sexually active females have been pregnant at least once.

  • 43 percent of females who had been pregnant reported having "had sex" at least once a month and 18 percent reported having "had sex" several times a week.

  • Pregnancy appeared more likely among students who reported having been physically and sexually abused: 13.5 percent of physically abused adolescents compared to five percent of non-physically abused adolescents have been pregnant; 11.7 percent of sexually abused teens compared to 5.5 percent of non-sexually abused adolescents have been pregnant.

A study of 3,749 sexually experienced, reservation-based American Indian adolescents of diverse sexual orientations who participated in a national school-based survey conducted with 55 tribes in eight of the 12 Indian Health Service areas from 1988 through 1990 found that:45

  • Nearly one in five gay/bisexual males (18.6 percent) reported having caused a pregnancy, compared to 11.8 percent of heterosexual males, and 10.4 percent of males unsure of their sexual orientation.

  • 25 percent of lesbian/bisexual females, 21.9 percent of heterosexual females, and 22.1 percent of females unsure of their sexual orientation reported a history of one or more pregnancies.

  • For younger females unsure of their sexual orientation, frequency of contraceptive use was significantly associated with pregnancy; those who reported they used contraceptives sometimes were 10 times more likely to report a pregnancy as compared to those who used contraceptives often to always (60 percent, sometimes; 19 percent, rarely; 6.7 percent, often/always).

  • For older females unsure of their sexual orientation, an earlier age at onset of heterosexual intercourse was significantly associated with pregnancy. Half of unsure females who reported an age of first intercourse at 13 years or younger had been pregnant, compared to 21.1 percent of unsure females whose first heterosexual intercourse occurred between 14 to 16 years of age, and 16.7 percent of unsure females whose first heterosexual intercourse occurred at 17 years of age or older.

  • For heterosexual females, age, frequency of intercourse, and physical abuse were significantly associated with pregnancy. History of pregnancy increased with age from 7.1 percent of 12 year olds to 39.6 percent of 18 year olds.

  • Among younger heterosexual females, 7.1 percent who seldom had intercourse reported a pregnancy; females who had intercourse sometimes were three times as likely (21.3 percent) as females who seldom had intercourse to report pregnancy; and females who had intercourse several times a week were twice as likely to report a pregnancy (14.8 percent).

  • Among older heterosexual females, one in five females who seldom had intercourse had been pregnant (19.7 percent) compared to more than one in four females who sometimes had intercourse (27.9 percent) and half of females who reported intercourse several times a week (49.5 percent).

  • Both older and younger heterosexual females with a history of physical abuse were more likely to report pregnancy: 27.6 percent of females who had been physically abused reported a pregnancy compared to 19.7 percent of females who had not been abused.


References

  1. A.P. MacKay, L.A. Fingerhut, and C.R. Duran, Health, United States, 2000: Adolescent Health Chartbook (Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics, 2000), p.26.

  2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, "Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance -- United States, 1999," Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 49, no. SS-5 (1999), pp. 19-20 and 75-78.

  3. Ibid.

  4. Ibid.

  5. Ibid.

  6. Ibid.

  7. Ibid.

  8. Ibid.

  9. Ibid.

  10. S. Hou and K. Basen-Engquist, "Human Immunodeficiency Virus Risk Behavior Among White and Asian/Pacific Islander High School Students in the United States: Does Culture Make a Difference," Journal of Adolescent Health, vol. 20, no. 1 (January 1997), pp. 68-74.

  11. M.A. Schuster, R.M. Bell, G.A. Nakajima, and D.E. Kanouse, "The Sexual Practices of Asian and Pacific Islander High School Students," Journal of Adolescent Health, vol. 23, no. 4 (October 1998), pp. 221-231.

  12. S.D. Cochran, V.M. Mays, and L. Leung, "Sexual Practices of Heterosexual Asian-American Young Adults: Implications for Risk of HIV Infection," Archives of Sexual Behavior, vol. 20, no. 4 (August 1991), pp. 381-91.

  13. The State of Native American Youth Health (Minneapolis, MN: Division of General Pediatrics and Adolescent Health, University of Minnesota, 1992), pp. 35-9.

  14. E.M. Saewyc, C.L. Skay, L.H. Bearinger, R.W. Blum, and M.D. Resnick, "Sexual Orientation, Sexual Behaviors, and Pregnancy Among American Indian Adolescents," Journal of Adolescent Health, vol. 23, no. 4 (October 1998), pp. 238-47.

  15. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, "Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance -- United States, 1999."

  16. Ibid.

  17. Ibid.

  18. Ibid.

  19. Schuster, Bell, Nakajima, and Kanouse, "The Sexual Practices of Asian and Pacific Islander High School Students."

  20. Cochran, Mays, and Leung, "Sexual Practices of Heterosexual Asian-American Young Adults."

  21. The State of Native American Youth Health.

  22. Saewyc, Skay, Bearinger, Blum, and Resnick, "Sexual Orientation, Sexual Behaviors, and Pregnancy Among American Indian Adolescents."

  23. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Tracking the Hidden Epidemics: Trends in STDs in the United States 2000.

  24. Ibid.

  25. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of STD Prevention, Sexually Transmitted Disease Surveillance, 1999 (Department of Health and Human Services, Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), September 2000), pp. 51 and 59-60.

  26. Ibid.

  27. National Asian Women's Health Organization, Community Solutions: Meeting the Challenge of STDs in Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (San Francisco: National Asian Women's Health Organization, 2000), pp. 7-9.

  28. A.R. Lifson, L.L. Halcón, P. Hannan, M.E. St. Louis, and C. R. Hayman, "Screening for Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Economically Disadvantaged Youth in a National Job Training Program," Journal of Adolescent Health, vol. 28, no. 3 (March 2001), pp. 190-96.

  29. The White House Office of National AIDS Policy, Youth and HIV/AIDS 2000: A New American Agenda (Washington, DC: Office of National AIDS Policy, 2000), pp. 1-4.

  30. Office of Minority Health, Office of Public Health and Science, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, HIV Impact: A Closing the Gap Newsletter (Washington, DC: Office of Minority Health, Spring 2001), p. 4.

  31. Ibid.

  32. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, "HIV Incidence Among Young Men Who Have Sex With Men -- Seven U. S. Cities, 1994-2000," Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, vol. 50, no. 21 (June 2001), pp. 440-44.

  33. M. Maldonado, HIV/AIDS and Asians and Pacific Islanders (Washington, DC: National Minority AIDS Council, October 1999), pp. 5-6.

  34. MacKay, Fingerhut, and Duran, Health, United States, 2000: Adolescent Health Chartbook, p.62.

  35. S.J. Ventura, W.D. Mosher, S.C. Curtin, and J. C. Abma, "Trends in Pregnancy Rates for the United States, 1976-97: An Update," National Vital Statistics Reports, vol. 49, no. 4 (Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics, June 6, 2001), p. 1.

  36. The Alan Guttmacher Institute, Teenage Pregnancy: Overall Trends and State-by-State Information (New York: The Alan Guttmacher Institute, April 1999), p. 1

  37. Ventura, Mosher, Curtin, and Abma, "Trends in Pregnancy Rates for the United States, 1976-97: An Update," p. 2.

  38. MacKay, Fingerhut, and Duran, Health, United States, 2000: Adolescent Health Chartbook, p. 62.

  39. S.J. Ventura, S.C. Curtin, T.J. Mathews, "Variations in Teenage Birth Rates, 1991-98: National and State Trends," National Vital Statistics Reports, vol. 48, no. 6 (Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics, April 24, 2000), p. 1.

  40. Ibid, p. 2.

  41. Ibid.

  42. Ibid.

  43. Ibid.

  44. The State of Native American Youth Health.

  45. Saewyc, Skay, Bearinger, Blum, and Resnick, "Sexual Orientation, Sexual Behaviors, and Pregnancy Among American Indian Adolescents."

A note from TheBody.com: Since this article was written, the HIV pandemic has changed, as has our understanding of HIV/AIDS and its treatment. As a result, parts of this article may be outdated. Please keep this in mind, and be sure to visit other parts of our site for more recent information!



  
  • Email Email
  • Printable Single-Page Print-Friendly
  • Glossary Glossary
  • PDF PDF

This article was provided by Sexuality Information and Education Council of the United States. It is a part of the publication SIECUS Report.
 
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