HIV/AIDS Newsroom: December 11, 2000
Screening for Chlamydia in Adolescents and Young Women
Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine Online (archpedi.ama-assn.org)
11/00 Vol. 154, No. 11,; Mangione-Smith, Rita; McGlynn, Elizabeth A.; Hiatt, Lisa
A study of more than 19,000 sexually active females between the ages of 15 and 25 indicates that rates of chlamydia screening for women in this group could be higher. The subjects were enrolled for calendar year 1997 in one of four major U.S. health plans and had visited their health care provider during that time. While the proportion of females in this age group who were identified as sexually active was similar in the four health plans, there was a great deal of variation for chlamydia screening for eligible females among the plans. There were significant differences between the plans for the types of visits (such as sexually transmitted disease testing or pregnancy) that determined eligibility for chlamydia testing, the researchers found.
Participants at an AIDS conference in Houston on Saturday said that prevention awareness is slowly taking hold among African Americans in the city and more religious leaders have joined in the fight against AIDS. Roy Delesbore, a health program specialist with the Texas Department of Health, noted that while some religious leaders have been hesitant to discuss the disease, that is starting to change, although he said more religious leaders could help. Approximately 300 people attended the conference, which was sponsored by Houston's Health and Human Services Department and City Councilman Jew Don Boney Jr. Boney reported that in the year since Houston Mayor Lee Brown declared an AIDS state of emergency, more than 2,500 new HIV cases have been reported in the city. Sixty-one percent of those cases were among African Americans, he said, and 78 percent of the cases among 13- to 19-year-olds were in African-American females.
Albright Takes a Tour of AIDS Clinic
Raleigh News and Observer (www.news-observer.com)
12/09/00 P. A16
As part of her efforts to increase awareness of the AIDS epidemic's toll on Africa, U.S. Secretary of State Madeleine Albright toured a AIDS research clinic in South Africa on Friday. There are an estimated 4.2 million HIV-infected individuals in South Africa.
A new report in the Medical Journal of Australia reveals what appears to be the first case of a prisoner acquiring tuberculosis (TB) from his sparring partner while boxing. In a letter to the journal, Dr. Michael Levy, head of population health at Sydney's Correction Health Service, and Craig Gater, health services manager at Australian Correctional Management in Junee, describe the case of the 34-year-old inmate who had been in "cheek-to-cheek" contact with another prisoner for nearly three months while boxing. Dr. Levy noted, "It's not just the close contact but blows to the stomach causing forced expiration which we think contributed to the transmission." While Dr. Levy admitted that boxing is probably not a key cause of TB transmission, he suggested it could be a minor source of diagnoses among young male adults.
Participants at a meeting at the Royal Society of Medicine in London heard Friday that increases in cases of gonorrhea, syphilis, and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in Europe could raise the risk of transmitting HIV. Dr. Angus Nicoll, head of the United Kingdom's Communicable Disease Surveillance Center, reported that rates of gonorrhea doubled in France between 1997 and 1998, increased 30 percent in the United Kingdom between 1998 and 1999, and increased 50 percent in Sweden during the late 1990s. Nicoll expressed particular concern about increasing rates of bacterial STDs and HIV in Europe, and he recommended education campaigns to increase the public's awareness of STDs.
Researchers from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Emory University in Atlanta recently reported that consistent condom use may rely on how assertive a girl is and how well she can negotiate. To determine the factors associated with consistent condom use, the authors studied more than 500 sexually active African-American females between the ages of 14 and 18. The researchers reported at the National STD Prevention Conference in Milwaukee that girls who had little or no fear of negative reactions from their partners were more than two times as likely to use the prophylactics consistently. In addition, compared to girls with older partners, those with partners of similar age were also more likely to use condoms regularly.
Officials from the Group of Eight (G-8) nations and developing countries reportedly have pledged to cut the youth HIV infection rate by 25 percent by 2005. The officials were meeting at the two-day Okinawa International Conference on Infectious Diseases, a follow-up to the G-8 nations' meeting in Okinawa in July. Japanese officials reported Friday that the participants also pledged to have 70 percent of tuberculosis (TB) patients undergo medical treatment, with a cure rate of 85 percent, and they created an action plan that called for each nation to develop a five-year TB prevention plan by November 2001.
The Coalition for Health Funding -- which represents organizations including the American Lung Association, the American Public Health Association, and the American Academy of Pediatrics -- is lobbying Congress and the White House to not give up on a controversial funding bill for the Departments of Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education. While some House Republicans have suggested that Congress should just continue funding at last year's levels, the coalition's Marcia Mabee notes that doing so would mean that many key programs would lose. Mabee said the greatest single loss would be the elimination of a $2.7 billion boost for the National Institutes of Health, while the Centers for Disease Control would not get an $886 million increase that includes funds dedicated to HIV prevention efforts, immunization programs, and infectious diseases.
A Ugandan official announced Thursday that the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation has donated over $15 million to the country to help implement population programs that address children and HIV/AIDS. The donation reportedly was in recognition of the Ugandan government's efforts to focus on adolescents and the AIDS epidemic.
Pfizer will offer free supplies of fluconazale, which it gave to South Africa, to other countries, such as Zimbabwe. Zimbabwe has one of the greatest AIDS problems in the world with HIV-infected people making up about 20 percent of the adult population. The country is unable to pay for new designer antiretroviral drugs to combat the disease, say local health experts. The drug treats cryptococcal meningitis, a disease that commonly affects AIDS patients through their weakened immune systems.
This article was provided by CDC National Prevention Information Network. It is a part of the publication CDC HIV/Hepatitis/STD/TB Prevention News Update.