Control: a special situation in research where no drug is given or no test is done. For example, a control group that gets a sugar pill might be compared to an experimental group that gets a real medication to see what are the effects of the medication.
Cross-resistance: the ability of a virus or bacteria to overcome the effects of more than one drug. For example, if an infection was resistant to antibiotic A and cross-resistant to B and C, then a different antibiotic (D) would be needed.
Hemophilia: a disease that interferes with blood clotting and can result in uncontrolled bleeding.
Hepatitis: inflammation of the liver that can have a variety of causes including viruses, medications, etc.
HIV-associated dementia: a progressive brain problem that causes confusion, loss of memory, problems thinking, and trouble keeping balanced.
Lactic acidosis: accumulation of lactic acid in the body. Lactic acid is a substance in blood and muscle tissue produced by the body when it is processing sugar for energy (usually when exercising or in the absence of normal levels of oxygen).
Neuropsychological: looking at how the brain and nervous system relate to actual thoughts and behaviors.
Opportunistic infection: a disease caused by an organism that is usually harmless, but becomes activated when a person's immune system is impaired or damaged.
Pancreatitis: inflammation of the pancreas, an internal organ, usually involving pain in the upper abdomen (just under the ribs) and possible nausea and vomiting.
Prophylactic: preventing the spread or occurrence of disease.
Regimen: a combination or schedule of medications.
Symptomatic: showing visible or measurable signs or symptoms of a disease.
Toxic: being poisonous or damaging to the body.
This article was provided by The Center for AIDS Information & Advocacy. It is a part of the publication HIV Treatment ALERTS!. Visit CFA's website to find out more about their activities and publications.