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References & Further Information

Summer 2000

Internet Resources
Credits and Acknowledgments

Internet Resources

  • Caribbean Epidemiology Center:
  • Department of State, Bureau of Oceans & International Environmental & Scientific Affairs. 1999 U.S. International Response to HIV/AIDS. 16 March 1999:
  • Family Health International:
  • The Futures Group:
  • National Institues of Health:
  • NIH Office of AIDS Research. Statement on fiscal year 2000 Presidentâs budget request for the National Institutes of Health:
  • NIH, Office of AIDS Research. Statement on fiscal year 2001 Presidentâs budget request for the National Institutes of Health:
  • Office of National AIDS Policy. AIDS czar praises FY 2001 budget request for AIDS care, prevention, and research. 8 February 2000:
  • Office of National AIDS Policy. Testimony to the Senate Subcommittee on Foreign Relations, Subcommittee on African Affairs, 24 February 2000:
  • Office of the Press Secretary, the White House. Clinton Gore administration announces new multimillion dollar increase to combat HIV and AIDS: Presidentâs budget includes largest ever increase for prevention. 18 January 2000:
  • Population Council:
  • Population Services International:
  • U.S. Agency for International Development:
  • USAID Mission in Brazil:
  • USAID Mission in South Africa:


    Altman LK. Parts of Africa showing HIV in 1 in 4 adults. New York Times, 24 June 1998.
    Anglaret X, Chéne G, Attia A, et al. Early chemoprophylaxis with trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole for HIV-1 infected adults in Abidjan, C™te d'Ivoire: a randomised trial. Lancet 353:1463-8, 1999.
    Binswanger HP. Scaling up HIV/AIDS programs to national coverage. Science 288:2173-6, 23 June 2000.
    Bloom BR, Bloom DE, Cohen JE, Sachs JD. Investing in the World Health Organization. Science 284;911: 7 May 1999.
    Bloom DE, River Path Associates. Something to be done: treating HIV/AIDS. Science 288:2171-3, 2000.
    Centers for Disease Control (CDC). The HIV/AIDS epidemic: the first 10 years. MMWR 40(22);357, 7 June 1991.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). HIV/AIDS surveillance report, 1999;11(no. 2), 2000.
    Cohen J. AIDS research in Africa [series]. Science 288:2149-70, 23 June 2000.
    Crossette B. Gore presides over rare Security Council debate on AIDS. New York Times, 11 January 2000, A3.
    Goldberg J. Epidemic proportions: questions for Peter Piot. New York Times Magazine, 4 June 2000, 27.
    Gore A. Remarks as prepared for delivery, United Nations Security Council opening session, 10 January 2000.
    Guay LA, Musoke P, Fleming T, et al. Intrapartum and neonatal single-dose nevirapine compared with zidovudine for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 in Kampala, Uganda: HIVNET 012 randomised trial. Lancet 354:795-802, 1999.
    Holden C. Stalking a killer in Russia's prisons. Science 286:1670, 26 November 1999.
    National Organizations Responding to AIDS (NORA). NORA AIDS appropriations recommendations fiscal year 20001. Washington, D.C., 2000.
    Piot P. Global AIDS epidemic: time to turn the tide. Science 288:2176-8, 23 June 2000.
    Reich MR. The global drug gap. Science 287:1979-81, 17 March 2000
    Sachs J. Sachs on globalisation: A new map of the world. The Economist, 24 June 2000, 81-3.
    Schoofs M. AIDS: the agony of Africa [series]. The Village Voice XLIV(44), 9 November 1999.
    UNAIDS/Harvard School of Public Health. Level and flow of national and international resources for the response to HIV/AIDS, 1996-1997. Geneva, Switzerland, 1999.
    UNAIDS. Report on the global HIV/AIDS epidemic: June 2000. UNAIDS, Geneva, Switzerland, 2000.
    U.S. Army Medical Research & Materiel Command. U.S. military HIV research program: leading the battle against HIV [no date; published in 1998].
    Wade NA, Birkhead GS, Warren BL, et al. Abbreviated regimens of zidovudine prophylaxis and perinatal transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus. N Engl J Med 339(20):1409-14, 12 November 1998.
    Wiktor SZ, Sassan-Morokro M, Grant AD, et al. Efficacy of trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole prophylaxis to decrease morbidity and mortality in HIV-1 infected patients with tuberculosis in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 353:1469-79, 1999.
    Wood E, Braitstein P, Montaner JSG, et al. Extent to which low-level use of antiretroviral treatment could curb the AIDS epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa. Lancet 355:2095-2100, 2000.
    World Health Organization. In point of fact (no. 74). Geneva, Switzerland, May 1991.

    1. The three exceptions include a $2.9 million USAID contract to the International AIDS Alliance in London, and two NCI contracts to the Caribbean Epidemiology Center and the University of the West Indies in Trinidad & Tobago.
    2. The four CFARs with international components are at Duke, Case Western Reserve, University of California-Los Angeles (UCLA), and the University of Washington.
    3. The HIVNET subcontractors were: Cornell University (Haiti); University of Pittsburgh (Brazil); University of Maryland (Trinidad); Johns Hopkins University (Malawi, India, Thailand, Uganda) Centre for Epidemiological Research of South Africa (South Africa); Chris Hani Baragwanath Hospital (South Africa); Case Western Reserve University (Uganda); University of Alabama (Zambia); Stanford University (Zimbabwe).

    Credits and Acknowledgments

    Derek Link is private consultant in New York City who specializes in policy analysis, grant writing, and problem solving. He has worked for Gay Men's Health Crisis, AIDS Action Council, the PWA Health Group, and other AIDS organizations. Contact him at and visit him at

    Mark Harrington is Senior Policy Director for the Treatment Action Group (TAG). Contact him at

    The Treatment Action Group (TAG) fights to find a cure for AIDS and to ensure that all people living with HIV receive the necessary treatment, care, and information they need to save their lives. TAG focuses on the AIDS research effort, both public and private, the drug development process, and our nation's health care delivery systems. We meet with researchers, pharmaceutical companies, and government officials, and resort when necessary to acts of civil disobedience, or to acts of Congress. We strive to develop the scientific and political expertise needed to transform policy. TAG is committed to working for and with all communities affected by HIV.


    Thanks to those toiling in the U.S. government who provided information for this report -- Judy Auerbach (NIH OAR), Jodi Black (NCI), Ken Bridbord (FIC), Wayne Crum (NIAID), Paul Delay (USAID), Bob Eisinger (OAR), Anthony S. Fauci (NIAID), Ellen Feigal (NCI), Helene Gayle (CDC), Alan Getson (USAID), Stan Katzman (NIH OAR), and Tom Williams (NIAID). Thanks to Andrea Dailey and Bob Huff for superior editorial contributions. Thanks also to Sam Avrett, David Barr, Gregg Gonsalves, Rebecca Lavine, Stephin Merritt, and Jane Silver for useful research, suggestions, and input. This report was made possible due to a generous grant from the American Foundation for AIDS Research (amfAR). Finally, thanks to the board, staff, consultants, volunteers, and donors of TAG, without whom this report would not have been possible.

    Contact us. If you would like more information about TAG, contact us at: Treatment Action Group, 350 Seventh Ave., Ste. #1603, New York, New York 10036, Phone: 212.972.9022, Fax: 212.971.9019, Internet:, Internet (after 1 August):

    Suggested citation: D Link, M Harrington. Exploring the American Response to the AIDS Pandemic. Treatment Action Group, New York, USA, July 2000.

    In memory of

    Paul Joseph Corser

    Kiyoshi Kuromiya

    • Exploring the American Response to the Global AIDS Pandemic -- in PDF format

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    This article was provided by Treatment Action Group. It is a part of the publication Exploring the American Response to the Global AIDS Pandemic.