A tender tuna steak lightly seasoned with lemon pepper and grilled over a charcoal fire is one way to please a seafood lover's palate. Stuffed flounder, lobster thermidor, and shrimp scampi are others.
But blue marlin served up with a dose of scombroid poisoning or steamed oysters with a touch of Norwalk-like virus are more likely to turn the stomach, instead of treating the palate.
In 1997, 26 employees of the World Bank headquarters in Washington, D.C., developed headaches, dizziness, nausea, and rashes several hours after eating blue marlin served in their workplace cafeteria. An emergency room doctor who treated some of the victims attributed the illness to scombroid poisoning, which is caused by a toxin produced when certain fish spoil.
In 1995, the national Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported 34 incidences of food poisoning in people who had eaten oysters harvested from certain southern U.S. waters. Health experts blamed the flu-like illness on a virus similar to the Norwalk virus, which is usually introduced into fishing areas by human sewage.
Generally, seafood is very safe to eat, says Phillip Spiller, director of the Food and Drug Administration's Office of Seafood. "On a pound-for-pound basis, seafood is as safe as, if not more safe than, other meat sources. But no food is completely safe, and problems do occur."
Spiller points out that while FDA has regulated seafood for decades, a new FDA program that went into effect in December 1997 aims to further ensure seafood's safety. This program requires seafood processors, repackers and warehouses -- both domestic and foreign exporters to this country -- to follow a modern food safety system known as Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point, or HACCP (pronounced hassip). This system focuses on identifying and preventing hazards that could cause food-borne illnesses rather than relying on spot-checks of manufacturing processes and random sampling of finished seafood products to ensure safety.
This is the first time that the HACCP system is being required for the processing and storage of a U.S. food commodity on an industry-wide basis.
Seafood safety could be further ensured if seafood retailers integrate HACCP in their operations. Although seafood retailers are exempt from the HACCP regulations, FDA, through its 1997 edition of the Food Code, encourages retailers to apply HACCP-based food safety principles, along with other recommended practices. The Food Code serves as model legislation for state and territorial agencies that license and inspect food service establishments, food vending operations, and food stores.
These efforts will be accompanied by seafood safety programs already in place, such as ongoing research by FDA's seafood safety experts and others, and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's voluntary fee-for-service inspection program.
Consumers are expected to continue their role, too, choosing seafood retailers and products carefully, and handling and serving their products with care in the home.
"Consumers are a step along the way to ensuring that only safe seafood goes in the mouth," says Mary Snyder, director of programs and enforcement policy in FDA's Office of Seafood. "They have to know what they're doing."
Seafood can be exposed to a range of hazards from the water to the table. Some of these hazards are natural to seafood's environment; others are introduced by humans. The hazards can involve bacteria, viruses, parasites, natural toxins, and chemical contaminants.
The HACCP system that seafood companies will have to follow will help weed out seafood hazards with the following seven steps:
Also, under FDA's HACCP regulations, seafood companies have to write and follow basic sanitation standards that ensure, for example, the use of safe water in food preparation; cleanliness of food contact surfaces, such as tables, utensils, gloves and employees' clothes; prevention of cross-contamination; and proper maintenance of hand-washing, hand-sanitizing, and toilet facilities.
In addition, molluscan shellfish handlers must follow a few additional rules; for example, they must obtain shellfish only from approved waters and only if they are properly tagged, which indicates that they have come from an approved source.
FDA estimates that more than half of the seafood eaten in this country is imported from almost 135 countries. The agency now requires for the first time that seafood importers take certain steps to verify that their overseas' suppliers are providing seafood processed under HACCP.
FDA periodically inspects seafood processors and warehouses. Required HACCP records will enable the agency to determine how well a company is complying over time.
The safety features of FDA's HACCP regulations are incorporated into the National Seafood Inspection Program of the Department of Commerce's National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. For a fee, NOAA inspects seafood processors and others, checking vessels and plants for sanitation and examining products for quality. The agency certifies seafood plants that meet federal standards and rates products with grades based on their quality. Seafood processors in good standing with the program are free to use official marks on products that indicate the seafood has been federally inspected.
FDA promotes seafood safety in other ways, including:
FDA also does extensive seafood safety research at its Gulf Coast Seafood Laboratory at Dauphin Island, Ala., and its seafood laboratories in Bothell, Wash., and Washington, D.C.
Research projects include:
A walk through just about any seafood market or through any grocery store's seafood section will show the diversity of today's U.S. seafood supply. There are crabs and clams, bass, red snapper, catfish, octopus and squid, mackerel and salmon, and many more -- from throughout the country and the world. The selection is a seafood gourmet's delight.
But delight can quickly turn to disaster if the seafood is unsafe. The establishment of HACCP in the seafood industry, along with ongoing research and other federal and state activities, and careful handling by consumers, can help ensure that seafood is not only tasty and healthful but safe to eat, as well.
Paula Kurtzweil is a member of FDA's public affairs staff.
Anyone who's ever smelled rotting seafood at the fish counter has a pretty good idea of what a poorly run seafood market smells like. But the absence of any strong odor doesn't necessarily mean that the seller is practicing safe food handling techniques.
Based on FDA's Food Code, here are some other points to consider:
Employees should be in clean clothing but no outerwear and wearing hair coverings.
They shouldn't be smoking, eating, or playing with their hair. They shouldn't be sick or have any open wounds.
Employees should be wearing disposable gloves when handling food and change gloves after doing nonfood tasks and after handling any raw seafood.
Fish should be displayed on a thick bed of fresh, not melting ice, preferably in a case or under some type of cover. Fish should be arranged with the bellies down so that the melting ice drains away from the fish, thus reducing the chances of spoilage.
What's your general impression of the facility? Does it look clean? Smell clean? Is it free of flies and bugs? A well-maintained facility can indicate that the vendor is following good sanitation practices.
Is the seafood employee knowledgeable about different types of seafood? Can he or she tell you how old the products are and explain why their seafood is fresh? If they can't, you should take your business elsewhere.
The fish's eyes should be clear and bulge a little. Only a few fish, such as walleye, have naturally cloudy eyes.
Whole fish and fillets should have firm and shiny flesh. Dull flesh may mean the fish is old. Fresh whole fish also should have bright red gills free from slime.
If the flesh doesn't spring back when pressed, the fish isn't fresh.
There should be no darkening around the edges of the fish or brown or yellowish discoloration.
The fish should smell fresh and mild, not fishy or ammonia-like.
Who's at Risk?People with certain diseases and conditions need to be especially careful to follow safe seafood practices. Their diseases or the medicines they take may put them at risk for serious illness or death from contaminated seafood.
These conditions include:
Older adults also may be at increased risk because they more often have these conditions. People with these diseases or conditions should never eat raw seafood -- only seafood that has been thoroughly cooked.