Can We Make Crack Cocaine Smoking Safer?
- Macías J, Palacios RB, Claro E, et al. High prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection among noninjecting drug users: association with sharing the inhalation implements of crack. Liver International. 2008;28(6):781-6.
- Fischer B, Powis J, Firestone Cruz M, et al. Hepatitis C virus transmission among oral crack users: viral detection on crack paraphernalia. European Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology. 2008;20(1):29-32.
- Neaigus A, Gyarmathy VA, Zhao M, et al. Sexual and other noninjection risks for HBV and HCV seroconversions among noninjecting heroin users. Journal of Infectious Disease. 2007;195(7):1052-61.
- DeBeck K, Kerr T, Li K, et al. Smoking of crack cocaine as a risk factor for HIV infection among people who use injection drugs. Canadian Medical Association Journal. 2009;181(9):585-9.
- Nutt D, King LA, Saulsbury W, Blakemore C. Development of a rational scale to assess the harm of drugs of potential misuse. Lancet. 2007 Mar 24;369(9566):1047-53.
- Bayoumi AM, Strike C, Jairam J, et al. Report of the Toronto and Ottawa Supervised Consumption Assessment Study. Toronto, Ontario: St. Michael's Hospital and the Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto; 2012. Accessed May 2013.
- Leonard L. Improving services for people in Ottawa who smoke crack: Ottawa's Safer Inhalation Program -- Final Evaluation Report; 2010. Accessed December 2012.
- Shannon K, Rusch M, Morgan R, et al. HIV and HCV prevalence and gender-specific risk profiles of crack cocaine smokers and dual users of injection drugs. Substance Use and Misuse. 2008;43(3-4):521-34.
- Public Health Agency of Canada [PHAC]. Summary: estimates of HIV prevalence and incidence in Canada, 2011. Ottawa: Surveillance and Epidemiology Division, Professional Guidelines and Public Health Practice Division, Centre for Communicable Diseases and Infection Control, PHAC; 2012.
- Ciesek S, Friesland M, Steinmann J, et al. How stable is the hepatitis C virus (HCV)? Environmental stability of HCV and its susceptibility to chemical biocides. Journal of Infectious Disease. 2010 Jun 15;201(12):1859-66.
- Doerrbecker J, Friesland M, Ciesek S, et al. Inactivation and survival of hepatitis C virus on inanimate surfaces. Journal of Infectious Disease. 2011 Dec;204(12):1830-1838.
- Public Health Agency of Canada. Epidemiology of Acute Hepatitis C Infection in Canada Results from the Enhanced Hepatitis Strain Surveillance System (EHSSS); 2009. Accessed December 2012.
- Bauwens JE, Orlander H, Gomez MP, et al. Epidemic Lymphogranuloma venereum during epidemics of crack cocaine use and HIV infection in the Bahamas. Sexually Transmitted Disease. 2002;29(5):253-8.
- Cu-Uvin S, Hyejin K, Jamieson DJ, et al. Prevalence, incidence, and persistence or recurrence of Trichomoniasis among Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-positive women and among HIV-negative women at high risk for HIV infection. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 2002;34(10):1406-11.
- DeHovitz JA, Kelly P, Feldman J, et al. Sexually transmitted diseases, sexual behavior, and cocaine use in inner-city women. American Journal of Epidemiology. 1994;140(12):1125-34.
- Des Jarlais DC, Arasteh K, McKnight C, et al. Gender and age patterns in HSV-2 and HIV infection among non-injecting drug users in New York City. Sexually Transmitted Disease. 2010;37(10):637-43.
- Gardy JL, Johnston JC, Ho Sui S, et al. Whole-genome sequencing and social-network analysis of a tuberculosis outbreak. New England Journal of Medicine. 2011;364(8):730-9.
- Gollub EL, Armstrong K, Boney T, et al. Correlates of trichomonas prevalence among street-recruited, drug-using women enrolled in a randomized trial. Substance Use and Misuse. 2010;45(13):2203-20.
- Kramer A, Schwebke, Kampf G. How long do nosocomial pathogens persist on inanimate surfaces? A systematic review, BMC Infectious Diseases. 2006;6:130-8.
- Leece P, Rajaram N, Woolhouse S, Millson M. Acute and chronic respiratory symptoms among primary care patients who smoke crack cocaine. Journal of Urban Health. 2013;90(3):542-52.
- McElroy PD, Rothenberg RB, Varghese R, et al. A network-informed approach to investigating a tuberculosis outbreak: implications for enhancing contact investigations. The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease. 2003;7(12):S486-93.
- Miller M, Liao Y, Wagner M, Korves C. HIV, the clustering of sexually transmitted infections, and sex risk among African American women who use drugs. Sexually Transmitted Diseases. 2008;35(7):696-702.
- Minkoff H, Zhong Y, Strickler HD, et al. The relationship between cocaine use and human papillomavirus infections in HIV-seropositive and HIV-seronegative women. Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2008:587082.
- Ross MW, Risser J, Peters RJ, Johnson RJ. Cocaine use and syphilis trends: Findings from the Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring (ADAM) program and syphilis epidemiology in Houston. American Journal on Addictions. 2006;15(6):473-7.
- Seña AC, Muth SQ, Heffelfinger JD, et al P. Factors and the sociosexual network associated with a syphilis outbreak in rural North Carolina. Sexually Transmitted Diseases. 2007;34(5):280-7.
- Sorvillo F, Kovacs A, Kerndt P, et al. Risk factors for trichomoniasis among women with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection at a public clinic in Los Angeles County, California: implications for HIV prevention. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 1998;58(4):495-500.
- Hagan H, Perlman DC, Des Jarlais DC. Sexual risk and HIV infection among drug users in New York City: a pilot study. Substance Use and Misuse. 2011;46(2-3):201-7.
- Backe H, Heywood D, Bailey K, Plourde P. SCUK Distribution in the Winnipeg Health Region; 2011. (unpublished)
- Barnaby L, Penn R, Erickson P. Drugs, Homelessness & Health: Homeless Youth Speak Out About Harm Reduction. The Shout Clinic Harm Reduction Report. 2010. Accessed December 2012.
- Benjamin K. Safeworks Safer Crack Use Kits; 2011. (unpublished) Made available by D Nielson, from SafeWorks Calgary
- Goodman D. (2005) Toronto crack users perspectives: Inside, Outside, Upside Down. The Safer Crack Use Coalition; 2005. The Wellesley Central Health Corporation. Accessed December 2012.
- Leonard L, DeRubeis E, Germain A, et al. Ontario Harm Reduction Distribution Program: Provincial report Outcome Evaluation Wave One -- Baseline. 2007. Accessed December 2012.
- Leonard L, Germain A. Ontario Harm Reduction Distribution Program: Final Outcome Evaluation; 2009. Accessed December 2012.
- Fischer B, Rudzinski K, Ivsins A, et al. Social, health and drug use characteristics of primary crack users in three mid-sized communities in British Columbia, Canada. Drugs: Education, Prevention & Policy. 2010;17(4):333-53.
- Ivsins A, Roth E, Nakamura N, et al. Uptake, benefits of and barriers to safer crack use kit (SCUK) distribution programmes in Victoria, Canada -- a qualitative exploration. International Journal of Drug Policy. 2011;22(4):292-300.
- Leonard L, DeRubeis E, Pelude L, et al. I inject less as I have easier access to pipes. International Journal of Drug Policy. 2008;19(3):255-64.
- Malchy L, Bungay V, Johnson J. Documenting practices and perceptions of 'safer' crack use: a Canadian pilot study. International Journal of Drug Policy. 2008 Aug;19(4):339-41.
- Boyd S, Johnson JL, Moffat B. Opportunities to learn and barriers to change: crack cocaine use in the Downtown Eastside of Vancouver. Harm Reduction Journal. 2008;5(1):34.
- Ti L, Buxton J, Wood E, et al. Difficulty accessing crack pipes and crack pipe sharing among people who use drugs in Vancouver, Canada. Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention & Policy. 2011;6(1):34.
- Canadian HIV/AIDS Legal Network. Distributing Safer Crack Kits in Canada; Sept. 2008. Accessed December 2012.
- Strike C, Watson TM, Lavigne P, et al. Guidelines for better harm reduction: evaluating implementation of best practice recommendations for needle and syringe programs (NSPs). International Journal of Drug Policy. 2011 Jan;22(1):34-40.
- Strike C, Hopkins S, Watson TM, et al. Best Practice Recommendations for Canadian arm Reduction Programs that Provide Service to People Who Use Drugs and are at Risk for HIV, HCV, and Other Harms: Part 1. Toronto, ON: Working Group on Best Practice for Harm Reduction Programs in Canada. 2013.
Add Your Comment:
(Please note: Your name and comment will be public, and may even show up in
Internet search results. Be careful when providing personal information! Before
adding your comment, please read TheBody.com's Comment Policy