The Body: The Complete HIV/AIDS Resource Follow Us Follow Us on Facebook Follow Us on Twitter Download Our App 
Professionals >> Visit The Body PROThe Body en Espanol
HIV/AIDS Resource Center for Women
Michelle Lopez Alora Gale Precious Jackson Nina Martinez Gracia Violeta Ross Quiroga Loreen Willenberg  
Michelle Alora Precious Nina Gracia Loreen  

Intersection of Intimate Partner Violence and HIV in Women

February 2014

 < Prev  |  1  |  2  |  3 


  1. Saltzman L.E. et al. (2002). Intimate partner violence surveillance: uniform definitions and recommended data elements, version 1.0. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control.
  2. Black, M.C., et al., (2011). The National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey (NISVS): 2010 Summary Report. Atlanta, GA: National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
  3. CDC. (2012). Estimated HIV incidence among adults and adolescents in the United States, 2007-2010. HIV Surveillance Supplemental Report; 17(4).
  4. CDC. (2013). Diagnosis of HIV Infection in the United States and Dependent Areas, 2011. HIV Surveillance Report; 23.
  5. Breiding, M.J., Black, M.C., G. Ryan (2008). Chronic disease and health risk behaviors associated with intimate partner violence -- 18 U.S. states/territories, 2005. Annals of Epidemiology, 18(7):538-544.
  6. Gielen, A.C., et al. (2007). HIV/AIDS and intimate partner violence: intersecting women's health issues in the United States. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse. 8(2):178-198.
  7. Machtinger et al. (2012a). Psychological trauma and PTSD in HIV-positive women: A meta-analysis. AIDS and Behavior 16(8), 2091-2100.
  8. Wyatt GE et al. (2002). Does a history of trauma contribute to HIV risk for women of color? Implications for prevention and policy. American Journal of Public Health, 92(4), 660-665.
  9. Vlahov D et al. (1998). Violence among women with or at risk for HIV infection. AIDS and Behavior, 2, 53-60.
  10. Cohen M et al. (2000). Domestic violence and child sexual abuse in HIV-infected women and women at risk for HIV. American Journal of Public Health, 90, 560-565.
  11. Koenig LJ et al. (2002). Violence during pregnancy among women with or at risk for HIV infection. American Journal of Public Health, 92: 367-370.
  12. Koenig, LJ et al. (2006). Physical and sexual violence during pregnancy and after delivery: A prospective multistate study of women with or at risk for HIV infection. American Journal of Public Health, 96, 1052-1059.
  13. Campbell, J.C., and K. Soeken. (1999). Forced sex and intimate partner violence: Effects on women's health. Violence Against Women. 5:1017-1035.
  14. Wingood, G.M., R.J. DiClemente, and A. Raj. (2000a). Adverse consequences of intimate partner abuse among women in non-urban domestic violence shelters. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 19(4):270-275.
  15. Wingood, G.M., R.J. DiClemente, and A.Raj. (2000b).Identifying the prevalence and correlates of STDs among women residing in rural domestic violence shelters. Women and Health 30(4):15-26.
  16. Maher J et al. (2000). Partner violence, partner notification and women' decisions to have an HIV test. Journal of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome, 25, 276-282.
  17. Maman, S. et al. (2000). The intersections of HIV and violence: Directions for future research and interventions. Social Science & Medicine 50(4):459-478.
  18. Jewkes, R, Sen, P, Garcia-Moreno, C. Sexual violence (2002). In: Krug, E., Dahlberg, L.L, Mercy, J.A., Zwi, A.B., Lozano, R., eds. World Report on Violence and Health. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.
  19. World Health Organization (2004). Violence against women and HIV/AIDS: Critical intersections. Intimate partner violence and HIV/AIDS. Geneva, Switzerland: Information Bulletin Series 1.
  20. Wilsnack SC et al. (2004) Child sexual abuse and alcohol use among women: Setting the stage for risky sexual behavior. In Koenig, LJ, Doll, L, O'Leary, A, and Pequegnat, W. (Eds.) From Child Sexual Abuse to Adult Sexual Risk: Trauma, Revictimization, and Intervention. American Psychological Association Books: Washington, DC.
  21. Koenig, LJ and Clark, H (2004). Sexual abuse of girls and HIV infection among women: Are they related? In Koenig, LJ, Doll, L, O'Leary, A, and Pequegnat, W. (Eds.) From Child Sexual Abuse to Adult Sexual Risk: Trauma, Revictimization, and Intervention. American Psychological Association Books: Washington, DC.
  22. Bogart, L. et al. (2005). The association of partner abuse with risky sexual behaviors among women and men with HIV/AIDS. AIDS and Behavior 9(3):325-333.
  23. Gielen, A.C. et al. (2000). Women's lives after an HIV-positive diagnosis: disclosure and violence. Maternal and Child Health Journal 4(2):111-119.
  24. Zierler, S. et al. (2000). Violence victimization after HIV infection in a U.S. probability sample of adult patients in primary care. American Journal of Public Health 90(2):208-215.
  25. Koenig LJ and Moore J. (2000). Women, Violence, and HIV: A Critical Evaluation with Implications for HIV Services. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 4 (2), 103-109.
  26. Machtinger EL, Haberer JE, Wilson TC, Weiss DS. (2012). Recent trauma is associated with antiretroviral failure and HIV transmission risk behavior among HIV-positive women and female-identified transgenders. AIDS and Behavior, 16(8):2160-70
  27. Molitor, F. et al. (2000). History of forced sex in association with drug use and sexual HIV risk behaviors, infection with STDs, and diagnostic medical care: results from the Young Women Survey. Journal of Interpersonal Violence 15(3):262-278.
  28. Hamburger, ME et al. (2004). Persistence of inconsistent condom use: Relation to abuse history and HIV serostatus. AIDS and Behavior, 8, 333-344.
  29. Basile, K.C. and S.G. Smith (2011). Sexual violence victimization of women: prevalence, characteristics, and the role of public health and prevention. American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine, 5(5):407-417.
  30. Black, M.C. (2011). Intimate partner violence and adverse health consequences: implications for clinicians. American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine, 5(5):428-439.
  31. Campbell, J.C. (2002). Health consequences of intimate partner violence. Lancet 359(9314): 1331-1336.
  32. Brokaw, J. (2002). Health status and intimate partner violence: A cross-sectional study. Annals of Emergency Medicine 39(1):31-38.
  33. Constantino, R.E. et al. (2000). Negative life experiences, depression, and immune function in abused and nonabused women. Biological Research for Nursing 1(3):190-198.
  34. Boarts, J.M. et al. (2006). The differential impact of PTSD and depression on HIV disease markers and adherence to HAART in people living with HIV. AIDS and Behavior 10(3):253-261.
  35. Delahanty, D.L. et al. (2004). Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, salivary cortisol, medication adherence, and CD4 levels in HIV-positive individuals. AIDS Care 16(2):247-260.
  36. Sledjeski, E. M. et al. (2005). Incidence and impact of posttraumatic stress disorder and comorbid depression on adherence to HAART and CD4+ counts in people living with HIV. AIDS Patient Care and STDs, 19(11):728-736.
  37. Ickovics JR et al. (2001). Mortality, CD4 cell count decline, and depressive symptoms among HIV-seropositive women. Journal of the American Medical Association, 285, 1466-1474.
  38. O'Leary A. et al. (2003). Association of negotiation strategies with consistent condom use by Zimbabwean women receiving an HIV prevention intervention. AIDS, 17, 1705-1707.
 < Prev  |  1  |  2  |  3 

This article was provided by U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Visit the CDC's website to find out more about their activities, publications and services.
See Also
More on Sexual Abuse, Violence and HIV/AIDS

No comments have been made.

Add Your Comment:
(Please note: Your name and comment will be public, and may even show up in
Internet search results. Be careful when providing personal information! Before
adding your comment, please read's Comment Policy.)

Your Name:

Your Location:

(ex: San Francisco, CA)

Your Comment:

Characters remaining:

The content on this page is free of advertiser influence and was produced by our editorial team. See our advertising policy.

See Also
Newly Diagnosed? Words of Encouragement from HIV-Positive Women
What Did You Expect While You Were Expecting?
HIV Tools You Can Use