November 25, 2014
CDC estimates that 1,201,100 persons aged 13 years and older are living with HIV infection, including 168,300 (14%) who are unaware of their infection.1 Over the past decade, the number of people living with HIV has increased, while the annual number of new HIV infections has remained relatively stable. Still, the pace of new infections continues at far too high a level -- particularly among certain groups.
HIV Incidence (new infections): The estimated incidence of HIV has remained stable overall in recent years, at about 50,000 new HIV infections per year.2 Within the overall estimates, however, some groups are affected more than others. MSM continue to bear the greatest burden of HIV infection, and among races/ethnicities, African Americans continue to be disproportionately affected.
HIV Diagnoses (new diagnoses, regardless of when infection occurred or stage of disease at diagnosis): In 2012, an estimated 47,989 people were diagnosed with HIV infection in the United States. In that same year, an estimated 27,928 people were diagnosed with AIDS. Overall, an estimated 1,170,989 people in the United States have been diagnosed with AIDS.3
Deaths: An estimated 13,834 people with an AIDS diagnosis died in 2011, and approximately 648,459 people in the United States with an AIDS diagnosis have overall.3 The deaths of persons with an AIDS diagnosis can be due to any cause -- that is, the death may or may not be related to AIDS.
Figure 1: Estimated New HIV Infections in the United States, 2010, for the Most Affected Subpopulations
Subpopulations representing 2% or less are not reflected in this chart. Abbreviations: MSM, men who have sex with men; IDU, injection drug user.
Gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) of all races and ethnicities remain the population most profoundly affected by HIV.
In 2010, the estimated number of new HIV infections among MSM was 29,800, a significant 12% increase from the 26,700 new infections among MSM in 2008.2
Although MSM represent about 4% of the male population in the United States,4 in 2010, MSM accounted for 78% of new HIV infections among males and 63% of all new infections.2 MSM accounted for 54% of all people living with HIV infection in 2011, the most recent year these data are available.1
In 2010, white MSM continued to account for the largest number of new HIV infections (11,200), by transmission category, followed closely by black MSM (10,600).2
The estimated number of new HIV infections was greatest among MSM in the youngest age group. In 2010, the greatest number of new HIV infections (4,800) among MSM occurred in young black/African American MSM aged 13-24. Young black MSM accounted for 45% of new HIV infections among black MSM and 55% of new HIV infections among young MSM overall.2
Since the epidemic began, an estimated 306,885 MSM with an AIDS diagnosis have died, including an estimated 5,302 in 2011.3
Heterosexuals and injection drug users also continue to be affected by HIV.
Since the epidemic began, almost 89,683 persons with an AIDS diagnosis, infected through heterosexual sex, have died, included an estimated 3,516 in 2011.3
New HIV infections among women are primarily attributed to heterosexual contact (84% in 2010) or injection drug use (16% in 2010). Women accounted for 20% of estimated new HIV infections in 2010 and 23% of those living with HIV infection in 2011.1,2 The 9,500 new infections among women in 2010 reflect a significant 21% decrease from the 12,000 new infections that occurred among this group in 2008.2
Injection drug users represented 8% of new HIV infections in 2010 and 15% of those living with HIV in 2011.1,2
Since the epidemic began, nearly 184,673 injection drug users with an AIDS diagnosis have died, including an estimated 3,723 in 2011.3
Blacks/African Americans continue to experience the most severe burden of HIV, compared with other races and ethnicities.
Blacks represent approximately 12% of the U.S. population, but accounted for an estimated 44% of new HIV infections in 2010. They also accounted for 41% of people living with HIV infection in 2011.1,2
Since the epidemic began, an estimated 265,812 blacks with an AIDS diagnosis have died, including an estimated 6,630 in 2011.3
Unless the course of HIV in the United States changes, at some point in their lifetime, an estimated 1 in 16 black men and 1 in 32 black women will be diagnosed with HIV infection.5
Hispanics/Latinos are also disproportionately affected by HIV.
Hispanics/Latinos represented 16% of the population but accounted for 21% of new HIV infections in 2010.2 Hispanics/Latinos accounted for 20% of people living with HIV infection in 2011.1
Disparities persist in the estimated rate of new HIV infections in Hispanics/Latinos. In 2010, the rate of new HIV infections for Latino males was 2.9 times that for white males, and the rate of new infections for Latinas was 4.2 times that for white females.2
Since the epidemic began, more than 99,281 Hispanics/Latinos with an AIDS diagnosis have died, including 2,310 in 2011.3
* For assessing disease risk, the term MSM is often used instead of gay, homosexual, or bisexual because it refers to a risk behavior, rather than an identity that may or may not be tied to a behavior.