July 23, 2012
This digest summarizes the Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention science presented on Monday, July 23.
Lead Author: Alexa Oster
Findings: HIV prevalence was higher among Latino MSM who immigrated five or more years ago (23 percent), compared to those who were born in the United States (16 percent) or who immigrated within the past five years (10 percent). Among Latino MSM, HIV prevalence was also associated with increasing age and having an annual income below $20,000. There is a critical window of opportunity for HIV prevention after Latino MSM immigrate to the U.S. Prevention efforts for Latino MSM should prioritize those with low incomes.
Relevance: The study examined differences in HIV risk based on location of birth and time since immigration for Latino men who have sex with men (MSM) utilizing National HIV Behavioral Surveillance System data. Interviews were conducted with approximately 1,700 Latino MSM, who reported at least one male sex partner in the past 12 months. Men were categorized as U.S.-born, foreign-born who immigrated less than five years ago, or foreign-born who immigrated five or more years ago.
Lead Author: Ivy Wade
Findings: Four percent of the African American women in sample were HIV-positive, 42 percent of whom were unaware of their infection. Women with previously undiagnosed infection were more likely to be over 34 years of age, live at or below poverty level, live in the Northeast or South, and report unstable housing in the past year. Among those who were unaware, the only significant individual risk factor was exchanging sex for drugs or money with their last male sex partner. Social and demographic factors are stronger predictors of undiagnosed HIV infection among African-American women than individual risk behaviors. Increased testing and linkage to care and structural interventions are needed to address contextual factors placing African American women at risk for HIV.
Relevance: Analysis was conducted among approximately 3,900 African-American women participating in the CDC 2010 National HIV Behavioral Surveillance System. Data on heterosexuals with low socioeconomic status in 20 U.S. cities were also included. Study shows that social and demographic factors are stronger predictors of undiagnosed HIV infection among African-American women than individual risk.
Lead Author: Alexa Oster
Findings: HIV prevalence was 11 percent among MSM aged 18-22 and 16% among MSM aged 23-29. Prevalence did not increase among the younger MSMs while the older MSMs saw a small increase in HIV prevalence. Both age groups saw substantial increases in HIV testing during this time. Gains in HIV testing are encouraging to prevent ongoing transmission; MSM should be tested regularly, aware of their infection, and linked and engaged in appropriate care.
Relevance: This study examined estimated HIV prevalence and testing among young men who have sex with men (MSM) from 1994-2008. MSMs were recruited by venue-based sampling for the Young Men's Survey and the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance System. Data from interviews and HIV testing were used.
Lead Author: Linda Beer
Findings: Analysis of data from a nationally representative sample of HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) in care in the United States finds that black MSM are significantly less likely than white MSM to report being on antiretroviral therapy (ART) and to have their virus suppressed (viral load ≤200 copies/ml). Researchers found that 20% of black MSM were not on ART and 31% were not virally suppressed, compared to 9% and 17% of white MSM, respectively. Researchers suggest that these differences may contribute to racial disparities in the epidemic among MSM, and that increasing ART use and viral suppression among black MSM could help reduce the impact of HIV in this population.
Relevance: Analysis included data from 314 black MSM and 696 white MSM participating in CDC's Medical Monitoring Project from June 2009 through May 2010.
Lead Author: Vera Yakovchenko
Findings: Of the total $9.6 billion allocated, the Northeast region received 40%; Midwest 11%, South 33%; and West 16%. Allocation was more closely correlated with living with AIDS numbers then living with HIV numbers. Overall, the allocation to the South tracked less closely with the disease burden while the Northeast had a greater than average per case funding. Recent health department funding awards redistribute funding to more closely align resources to the epidemic.
Relevance: Authors analyzed federal funding for four geographic regions (Northeast, Midwest, South, and West) in the U.S. to determine regional distribution levels and to inform future allocation formulas and policies.