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HIV, Vitamins and Supplements

January 17, 2017

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Table of Contents

Micronutrients and HIV

Vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants are called micronutrients. Even though the body only needs small amounts, micronutrients are essential for good health. Our bodies use them in the different chemical reactions our cells go through as part of the body's normal functions. While some people get the nutrients they need through a healthy, balanced diet, many people living with HIV (HIV+) need more micronutrients to help heal cells damaged by the virus and support the immune system. Several studies have shown that taking micronutrient supplements can help keep people living with HIV healthier longer.


Vitamins generally fall into one of two categories: (1) fat-soluble, or those that dissolve in fats, and (2) water-soluble, or those that dissolve in water.

When you take in fat-soluble vitamins (through foods or supplements), your body uses what it needs and stores the rest. Fat-soluble vitamins include vitamins A, D, E, and K. It is important not to take too much of these vitamins because they can build up in the body and cause harmful side effects. For example, too much vitamin A (betacarotene) can cause nausea, blurred vision, birth defects, and liver problems.

When you take in water-soluble vitamins, such as B vitamins and vitamin C, your body uses what it needs and filters out the extra into your urine. Side effects from water-soluble vitamins are less common, but can occur. For example, large doses of vitamin C can cause nausea, stomach cramps, and diarrhea.



Minerals form the structures in the body (calcium in bone, iron in blood) and play a role in the normal functioning of nerves, muscles, and hormones. Several minerals, including zinc, selenium, and iron have a role in fighting HIV. The role of calcium is especially important for women during the time around menopause (perimenopause) and after menopause.


The body produces molecules called free radicals as part of its normal functioning. Free radicals can damage your body's cells. Certain factors, like infection, pollution, and cigarette smoke can increase the number of free radicals in the body. Antioxidants can keep the extra free radicals from causing damage. Some vitamins, including vitamin C and vitamin E, are antioxidants. Beta-carotene (vitamin A) and selenium are also antioxidants.

Getting Enough

While micronutrients can be found in foods, some people living with HIV cannot meet all their nutrient needs through their diet. People living with HIV who do not to get enough micronutrients may not get them for a number of reasons: because of HIV infection itself, changes in metabolism, poor appetite, diarrhea, poor absorption of nutrients, or HIV-related conditions such as HIV wasting and AIDS.

Micronutrients that are often low in people living with HIV include vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin E, selenium, zinc, and B complex vitamins (B1, Thiamine; B2, Riboflavin; B3, niacin; B6, Pyridoxine; B12, Cobolamin; and B9, folic acid). Some research shows these low vitamin levels can lead to lower CD4 cell counts and worsening of HIV. They can also cause problems like diarrhea, neuropathy, and skin conditions.

In resource-poor countries, many women do not get enough micronutrients because they do not have access to enough food or good-quality foods. Yet even in resource-rich countries, it is possible to eat well, feel fine, and still not be getting enough of certain vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants.

The Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) guidelines are set by the US government to let people know how much of each micronutrient they need each day to maintain good health. Due to dieting, eating unhealthy foods, lack of time, or other pressures, half of all women in the US do not eat what they need to meet even the basic RDA requirements for folic acid, iron, zinc, calcium, magnesium, copper, vitamins A, D, E, and certain B vitamins. This puts women, especially women living with HIV, at particular risk for low levels of micronutrients. In addition, women are more likely not to get enough nutrients because of menstruation, pregnancy, and menopause.

Eating a well-balanced diet should be the basis of any plan to correct micronutrient deficiencies. Since different vitamins and minerals are found in different food groups, it is important to include foods from each group in your diet every day. (Read more about food groups at the USDA's "Choose My Plate" website.)

  • Protein group -- Healthy foods from this group include lean red meats, skinless chicken or turkey, fish, nuts, peanut butter, soy products, seeds, beans, quinoa, and peas
  • Grains group -- Healthy foods from this group include whole grain breads, whole grains like oats and wheat, oatmeal, and brown rice
  • Fruit group -- Any fresh fruit is a good choice
  • Vegetable group -- Fresh and frozen vegetables are the best
  • Dairy group -- Try to choose one percent or skim (non-fat) milk, low-fat yogurt and cottage cheese, and small amount of cheeses

For more information, see our fact sheet on Nutrition and HIV.

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This article was provided by The Well Project. Visit The Well Project's Web site to learn more about their resources and initiatives for women living with HIV. The Well Project shares its content with to ensure all people have access to the highest quality treatment information available. The Well Project receives no advertising revenue from or the advertisers on this site. No advertiser on this site has any editorial input into The Well Project's content.


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