Table 2. Estimated Percentage* of Injecting Drug Users at Risk for Acquiring Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection (n = 9,565) Who Engaged in Behaviors§ Associated With HIV Infection, by Selected Characteristics -- National HIV Behavioral Surveillance System, United States, 2009

Characteristic

Shared syringes

Shared injection equipment

Had vaginal sex

Had unprotected vaginal sex

Had heterosexual anal sex

Had unprotected heterosexual anal sex

Had more than one opposite sex partner

Was tested for HIV infection

Participated in behavioral intervention

Was ever tested for hepatitis C**

(95% CI)

(95% CI)

(95% CI)

(95% CI)

(95% CI)

(95% CI)

(95% CI)

(95% CI)

(95% CI)

(95% CI)

Overall

34

58

80

69

29

23

46

49

19

72

 

(32-36)

(56-60)

(78-82)

(67-71)

(27-31)

(21-24)

(44-48)

(47-51)

(18-21)

(70-74)

Sex

Men

32

57

79

67

29

23

45

47

18

71

 

(30-34)

(54-59)

(77-81)

(65-69)

(27-31)

(21-25)

(43-48)

(45-50)

(17-20)

(69-73)

Women

38

60

81

73

28

22

47

52

22

73

 

(35-42)

(57-64)

(79-84)

(70-76)

(25-31)

(20-25)

(43-50)

(48-55)

(19-25)

(70-77)

Race/Ethnicity

Hispanic

34

59

81

67

40

31

45

48

17

71

 

(30-38)

(55-63)

(78-85)

(62-71)

(35-44)

(27-35)

(40-50)

(44-53)

(13-20)

(67-75)

Black, non-Hispanic

27

54

81

69

24

19

47

52

21

67

 

(24-29)

(51-57)

(79-84)

(67-72)

(22-27)

(17-21)

(44-50)

(49-54)

(18-23)

(64-70)

White, non-Hispanic

43

62

80

72

29

23

45

44

20

78

 

(39-47)

(58-66)

(76-83)

(68-76)

(26-32)

(20-26)

(42-49)

(40-48)

(17-22)

(74-81)

Other††

40

58

71

59

23

16

47

52

18

80

 

(31-50)

(50-67)

(61-80)

(50-67)

(16-30)

(11-21)

(39-56)

(43-61)

(13-23)

(72-87)

Age group (yrs)

18-29

52

73

92

83

44

35

62

52

23

70

 

(47-57)

(69-78)

(88-97)

(79-88)

(38-49)

(30-40)

(57-67)

(46-58)

(18-27)

(65-75)

30-39

39

64

88

79

41

35

51

48

19

72

 

(34-44)

(60-68)

(85-91)

(75-83)

(37-45)

(30-39)

(46-56)

(43-53)

(16-23)

(67-76)

40-49

34

55

79

69

28

22

45

54

19

71

 

(31-38)

(52-59)

(76-82)

(65-72)

(25-31)

(19-25)

(41-48)

(51-58)

(16-22)

(68-75)

≥50

25

52

72

59

19

14

39

43

19

73

 

(23-28)

(49-55)

(70-75)

(56-62)

(16-21)

(12-15)

(36-42)

(40-46)

(16-22)

(70-76)

Education

Less than high school diploma

38

59

81

69

32

26

47

47

16

67

 

(35-42)

(56-62)

(78-83)

(67-72)

(29-35)

(23-29)

(43-50)

(43-50)

(14-18)

(63-70)

High school diploma

32

57

79

68

27

21

43

50

20

73

 

(30-35)

(54-60)

(76-82)

(65-71)

(24-30)

(19-23)

(40-46)

(47-53)

(18-23)

(70-75)

More than high school diploma

31

57

81

69

28

22

49

49

24

78

 

(27-35)

(53-61)

(78-84)

(66-73)

(24-31)

(18-25)

(46-53)

(45-53)

(20-27)

(74-81)

Poverty level

At or below federal poverty level

35

58

80

68

28

22

46

48

20

70

 

(33-38)

(56-60)

(78-82)

(66-70)

(26-30)

(20-24)

(43-49)

(46-50)

(18-22)

(68-72)

Above federal poverty level

27

55

81

71

30

24

43

52

18

78

 

(23-31)

(51-59)

(77-85)

(67-75)

(26-34)

(21-28)

(39-48)

(48-57)

(15-21)

(75-82)


Table 2. (Continued) Estimated Percentage* of Injecting Drug Users at Risk for Acquiring Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection (n = 9,565) Who Engaged in Behaviors§ Associated With HIV Infection, by Selected Characteristics -- National HIV Behavioral Surveillance System, United States, 2009

Characteristic

Shared syringes

Shared injection equipment

Had vaginal sex

Had unprotected vaginal sex

Had heterosexual anal sex

Had unprotected heterosexual anal sex

Had more than one opposite sex partner

Was tested for HIV infection

Participated in behavioral intervention

Was ever tested for hepatitis C**

(95% CI)

(95% CI)

(95% CI)

(95% CI)

(95% CI)

(95% CI)

(95% CI)

(95% CI)

(95% CI)

(95% CI)

Drug injected most frequently

Heroin only

33

57

78

66

25

20

42

47

19

73

 

(30-35)

(54-59)

(76-81)

(64-69)

(23-27)

(18-22)

(39-44)

(45-50)

(17-21)

(70-75)

Other/Multiple§§

36

60

83

74

35

27

53

51

21

70

 

(33-39)

(57-63)

(80-86)

(71-77)

(32-38)

(24-30)

(50-56)

(48-55)

(18-23)

(67-73)

Region¶¶

Northeast

35

55

82

71

34

27

46

51

22

74

 

(32-39)

(51-59)

(78-85)

(67-75)

(30-37)

(24-30)

(42-50)

(47-55)

(19-25)

(71-78)

South

33

62

84

73

26

20

48

53

21

68

 

(30-37)

(59-65)

(82-86)

(70-76)

(23-29)

(17-23)

(44-51)

(50-56)

(18-24)

(64-71)

Midwest

26

44

80

62

24

17

48

41

11

59

 

(22-31)

(39-49)

(76-85)

(57-67)

(20-28)

(13-20)

(43-53)

(37-46)

(8-14)

(54-64)

West

35

61

74

64

26

20

43

45

16

77

 

(32-39)

(57-65)

(70-78)

(60-68)

(22-29)

(17-24)

(39-47)

(40-49)

(13-19)

(73-81)

Abbreviation: CI = confidence interval.

* Percentages were weighted to adjust for differences in recruitment, the size of participants' networks of IDUs, and the size of the population of IDUs in each metropolitan statistical area (MSA).

† IDUs at risk for acquiring HIV infection were defined as those reporting having never had an HIV test or that their most recent HIV test result was negative, indeterminate, or unknown. This group includes those IDUs who did not know they were HIV positive before the interview but tested positive during the interview.

§ Sharing syringes was defined as "using needles that someone else had already injected with," and sharing injection equipment was defined as using equipment such as cookers, cottons, or water used to rinse needles or prepare drugs "that someone else had already used." Unprotected vaginal sex/Unprotected anal sex was defined as "sex without a condom." Participating in an individual or group HIV behavioral intervention (e.g., a one-on-one conversation with a counselor or an organized discussion regarding HIV prevention) did not include counseling received as part of an HIV test.

¶ The National HIV Behavioral Surveillance System covers the following MSAs: Atlanta, Georgia; Baltimore, Maryland; Boston, Massachusetts; Chicago, Illinois; Dallas, Texas; Denver, Colorado; Detroit, Michigan; Houston, Texas; Los Angeles, California; Miami, Florida; Nassau-Suffolk, New York; New Orleans, Louisiana; New York, New York; Newark, New Jersey; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; San Diego, California; San Francisco, California; San Juan, Puerto Rico; Seattle, Washington; and Washington, District of Columbia.

** Testing for hepatitis C virus infection was measured as ever tested or ever received a diagnosis of hepatitis C. All other behaviors are reported for the previous 12 months.

†† Includes American Indian/Alaska Natives, Asians, Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islanders, and persons of multiple races.

§§ Other drugs injected alone or two or more drugs injected with the same frequency.

¶¶ The Northeast region includes the MSAs of Boston, Massachusetts; Nassau-Suffolk, New York; New York, New York; Newark, New Jersey; and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. South region includes Atlanta, Georgia; Baltimore, Maryland; Dallas, Texas; Houston, Texas; Miami, Florida; New Orleans, Louisiana; and Washington, District of Columbia. Midwest region includes Chicago, Illinois and Detroit, Michigan. West region includes Denver, Colorado; Los Angeles, California; San Diego, California; San Francisco, California; and Seattle, Washington. San Juan, Puerto Rico, was not included.