Newly Diagnosed or Long-Term Survivor -- What Everyone Should Know About HIV and Their Rights
Confidentiality Rights -- the AIDS Confidentiality Act
First, your HIV status should not be disclosed by you to anyone except those people who absolutely need to know (doctors, health care providers, etc.), close friends, most-trusted confidants, and family members. Fellow co-workers are not people who need to know your HIV status. They could betray your confidence and if they told others you were positive, they would be breaking the law.
As laws differ from state to state, you may need to seek legal advice or check the laws regarding confidentiality of HIV disclosure in your state. Section 9 of the Illinois AIDS Confidentiality Act prohibits disclosure of the identity of any person upon whom an HIV-antibody test is performed, or the results of the test, except to a list of certain medical professionals. And the confidentiality act provides for civil and criminal sanctions for disclosure of another's HIV status to unauthorized persons.
Employment and job rights -- Should you tell your employer?
There is no definitive answer as to whether or when you should tell your employer of your HIV status. It is a case-by-case decision, as there are strong arguments against disclosure -- it's none of their business and can often cause you harm. But there are also arguments that the employer should be told in order to afford the employee some of the protections the law offers to people with HIV.
Two times when it is appropriate to tell your employer are: when you are making HIV-related insurance claims or when your job performance is being impaired by HIV. If you are submitting medical bills for treatment of HIV, your employer is going to find out. It's best for your boss to hear it from you rather than through gossip or from the person in charge of benefits.
Your HIV-positive condition is protected as a handicap under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), now in effect, provided your employer has 25 or more employees. In Illinois, the Illinois Human Rights Act, the Cook County Human Rights Ordinance and the Chicago Human Rights Ordinance protect you against discrimination.
If your job performance is being affected, you will need to request that your employer provide reasonable accommodation to your handicap, as required under these federal, state, and municipal discrimination laws. The form of the "reasonable accommodation" you may request is the ability to take short periods of time off from work if you need to do so. You may need to visit a doctor, undergo blood testing to monitor your health, or you may need to rest and otherwise care for and maintain your fitness, energy, and strength.
You should request that your employer instruct your immediate supervisor to permit you to take sick days off, but not to inform him or her as to the reasons for this permission. Although your employer may need to know your HIV status, your immediate supervisor and other employees do not.
You don't want to be fired or laid off because you couldn't perform your job without your employer knowing the reason. If you are fired or laid off without disclosing your HIV status, you lose your legal right to claim that you were discriminated against because of your HIV status -- which might be a violation of the law in your state. You may also want to apply for employer-provided short- or long-term disability benefits. These are only provided while you are an employee.
Whatever you do, do not voluntarily quit your job if HIV is impairing your job performance. Instead, a medical or disability leave of absence should be requested. Otherwise, your right to long-term disability benefits and life insurance may be jeopardized.
If you believe that you have been discriminated against in the City of Chicago or in Illinois, your remedy is to file a complaint with the Chicago Commission on Human Relations, the Cook County Commission on Human Rights, and/or the Illinois Department of Human Rights. Contact information is provided below.
Obligation to Disclose to Sexual Partners -- Is It a Crime to Have Sex?
Reflecting a growing fear about HIV, legislatures around the country are passing laws attempting to protect the public from AIDS. More than 30 states now make it a crime to knowingly transmit or expose others to HIV, and some states are mandating HIV testing for specific segments of the population such as prisoners and pregnant women.
More and more, the trend has been for lawmakers to get tough on people with HIV. The legislative trend has been moving from a period when civil rights and civil liberties for a person with HIV prevailed, to a compulsory and punitive approach. Unfortunately, state legislatures, in their attempt to gain political points by passing laws which make transmission of HIV a crime, only serve to increase the atmosphere of fear that already surrounds HIV/AIDS, inhibiting people from coming forward to seek education, testing, counseling, and treatment. In addition to potential criminal penalties, there is also the possibility of civil liability for having sex if positive, depending on your state.
Again, because the laws differ from state to state, it's best to seek legal advice or check the laws in your own state. However, in Illinois, the state Supreme Court has unanimously upheld Illinois' HIV Criminal Transmission of HIV Act. The case concerned alleged conduct involving vaginal intercourse. The defendant was charged with violation of the law that states, "knowing that he... is infected with HIV, [he] engaged in intimate contact with another." And that intimate contact exposed one person to the bodily fluid of another person in a manner that could result in the transmission of HIV.
Yes, you should disclose. The law does create an affirmative defense if the person who was exposed knew, or should have known, that they were at risk of being infected and consented to having sex with that knowledge. Anyone who is positive and has sex should disclose their HIV status to their partner. The law in Illinois does not include other defenses which should be considered in a criminal prosecution, such as safe sex precautions with the use of a condom.
Illinois law also does not require the sexual partner(s) to have actually been infected and the prosecution does not have to show that the accused had the criminal intent to infect someone else with HIV. Merely having sex ("intimate contact") would be sufficient. Note that there have been very few Illinois prosecutions under this law other than actions involving prisoners who spit on guards.
Keeping Your Medical Insurance When You Change Jobs
Employees have felt locked into their jobs to keep insurance coverage for pre-existing conditions. To avoid "job-lock," it is important to know and understand your rights under the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA). Under HIPAA, employers' health care plans cannot exclude a new worker's pre-existing condition from coverage for more than 12 months.
If you are HIV-positive and it was known by the insurance company from your old employer, and you have been covered by them for more than 12 months, your HIV status will not be considered a pre-existing condition for your new insurance company. You will have health insurance on the first day of your new job or whenever your new employer's probationary period ends.
When you leave your old job, employers with two or more employees that offer health insurance must notify former workers that they are eligible for certificates of coverage that would verify previous health coverage for new employers. New insurers can only exclude coverage for medical conditions that have been newly diagnosed or treated within the six-month period before the employee enrolled in the health care plan at the new job. However, the exclusion from coverage cannot be for more than 12 months.
This article was provided by Test Positive Aware Network. It is a part of the publication Positively Aware. Visit TPAN's website to find out more about their activities, publications and services.
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