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HIV Surveillance -- United States, 1981-2008

June 3, 2011

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FIGURE. Estimated Number of AIDS Diagnoses and Deaths and Estimated Number of Persons Living With AIDS Diagnosis* and Living With Diagnosed or Undiagnosed HIV Infection Among Persons Aged ≥13 Years -- United States, 1981-2008

FIGURE. Estimated Number of AIDS Diagnoses and Deaths and Estimated Number of Persons Living With AIDS Diagnosis and Living With Diagnosed or Undiagnosed HIV Infection Among Persons Aged ≥13 Years -- United States, 1981-2008

Abbreviations: AIDS = acquired immunodeficiency syndrome; HIV = human immunodeficiency virus.

* Yearly AIDS estimates were obtained by statistically adjusting national surveillance data reported through June 2010 for reporting delays, but not for incomplete reporting.

† HIV prevalence estimates were based on national HIV surveillance data reported through June 2010 using extended back-calculation.

Alternate Text: The figure above shows the estimated number of acquired immunodeficiency disease (AIDS) diagnoses and deaths and estimated number of persons living with AIDS diagnosis and living with diagnosed or undiagnosed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, among persons aged ≥13 years in the United States during 1981-2008. From 1981 to 1995, the estimated annual number of deaths among persons with AIDS increased from 451 to 50,628. These increases were followed by declines of 45% in AIDS diagnoses from 1993 to 1998 and 63% in deaths from 1995 to 1998. AIDS diagnoses and deaths remained fairly stable at an average of 38,279 AIDS diagnoses and 17,489 deaths per year during 1999-2008. As a result, the estimated number of persons aged ≥13 years living with AIDS more than doubled from 1996 (219,318) to 2008 (479,161).


TABLE. Estimated Number and Rate of Persons Aged ≥13 Years Living With HIV Infection, and Number and Percentage Whose HIV Infection Was Undiagnosed, by Selected Characteristics -- United States, 2008*

Characteristic

Total persons living with HIV infection

Persons whose HIV infection was undiagnosed

No.

(95% CI)

Rate

(95% CI)

No.

(95% CI)

%

Total

1,178,350

(1,128,350-1,228,500)

469.4

(449.5-489.4)

236,400

(224,900-247,900)

20.1

Sex

Male

883,450

(841,450-925,450)

719.5

(685.3-753.7)

182,450

(172,450-192,450)

20.6

Female

294,900

(269,900-319,900)

230.0

(210.5-249.5)

53,950

(47,950-59,950)

18.3

Age group (yrs)

13-24

68,600

(56,000-80,600)

134.1

(109.5-157.6)

40,400

(35,400-45,400)

58.9

25-34

180,600

(160,600-200,600)

440.9

(392.1-489.8)

56,800

(51,300-62,300)

31.5

35-44

357,500

(327,500-387,500)

846.3

(775.3-917.4)

64,300

(58,300-70,300)

18.0

45-54

385,400

(353,400-417,400)

871.3

(798.9-943.6)

53,200

(48,200-58,200)

13.8

55-64

147,700

(132,770-162,770)

439.3

(394.9-484.1)

17,600

(15,600-19,600)

11.9

≥65

38,400

(34,400-42,400)

99.0

(88.7-109.3)

4,100

(3,600-4,600)

10.7

Race

American Indian/Alaska Native

5,000

(3,500-6,500)

268.8

(188.2-349.4)

1,250

(650-1,850)

25.0

Asian/Pacific Islander

16,750

(14,250-19,250)

147.0

(125.0-168.9)

4,350

(2,850-4,850)

26.0

Black/African American

545,000

(513,000-577,000)

1,819.0

(1,712.2-1,925.8)

116,750

(108,650-124,850)

21.4

White

406,000

(378,000-434,000)

238.4

(221.9-254.8)

75,200

(70,700-81,700)

18.5

Ethnicity

Hispanic/Latino

205,400

(186,400-224,400)

592.9

(538.0-647.7)

38,900

(33,900-43,900)

18.9

Transmission category

MSM

580,000

(540,000-620,000)

NC

NC

128,400

(119,900-136,900)

22.1

IDU (male)

131,600

(114,600-148,600)

NC

NC

18,900

(15,600-22,200)

14.4

IDU (female)

73,900

(62,900-84,900)

NC

NC

10,400

(8,000-12,800)

14.1

MSM and IDU

55,200

(45,200-65,200)

NC

NC

6,200

(4,200-8,200)

11.2

Heterosexual contact§ (male)

110,900

(95,900-125,900)

NC

NC

27,700

(23,700-31,700)

25.0

Heterosexual contact§ (female)

217,400

(195,400-239,400)

NC

NC

42,900

(37,900-47,900)

19.7

Other¶

9,350

(7,850-10,850)

NC

NC

1,900

(1,100-2,700)

20.3

Abbreviations: HIV = human immunodeficiency virus; CI = confidence interval; MSM = men who have sex with men; NC = not calculated because population denominators for transmission category subgroups were unavailable; IDU = injection drug users.

* Estimates derived using extended back-calculation on HIV and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) data for persons aged ≥13 years at diagnosis from 40 states that have had confidential name-based HIV infection reporting since at least January 2006, and AIDS data from 10 states (California, Delaware, Hawaii, Maryland, Massachusetts, Montana, Oregon, Rhode Island, Vermont, and Washington) and the District of Columbia.

† Per 100,000 population.

§ Heterosexual contact with a person known to have, or to be at high risk for, HIV infection.

¶ Includes hemophilia, blood transfusion, perinatal exposure, and risk factors not reported or not identified.


What is already known on this topic?

The annual number of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) diagnoses and deaths in the United States declined significantly with the advent of combination therapy in the mid-1990s and remained stable thereafter. However, each year, approximately 50,000 U.S. residents become infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

What is added by this report?

At the end of 2008, an estimated 1,178,350 persons aged ≥13 years in the United States were living with HIV infection, including 20.1% whose infections had not been diagnosed. HIV prevalence per 100,000 population was 1,819 among blacks or African Americans, 593 among Hispanics or Latinos, and 238 among whites. Nearly 50% of those living with HIV infection were men who have sex with men.

What are the implications for public health practice?

To achieve the goals of the National HIV/AIDS Strategy, HIV prevention, care, and treatment programs must continue their efforts to reduce incidence, increase access to care, improve health outcomes among persons living with HIV, and reduce HIV-related health disparities.

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This article was provided by U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. It is a part of the publication Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Visit the CDC's website to find out more about their activities, publications and services.
 
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