Sexually Transmitted Diseases and HIV/AIDS
July 27, 2015
Table of Contents
Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), also called sexually transmitted infections (STIs), are infections that are passed from person to person through sexual contact. HIV is an STD. There are more than 25 other STDs that are mainly spread by sexual contact such as vaginal, anal, and oral sex.
Globally, the World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that more than one million people get an STD every day. Most people with sexually transmitted infections do not have any symptoms and are therefore often unaware of their ability to pass the infection on to their sexual partner(s).
If left untreated, STDs can cause serious health problems including cervical cancer, liver disease, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), infertility, and pregnancy problems. Having some STDs (such as chancroid, herpes, syphilis, and trichomoniasis) can increase the risk of your getting HIV if you are HIV-negative and get exposed to HIV. People living with HIV (HIV+) may also be at greater risk of getting or passing on other STDs. If and when people living with HIV get STDs, they often experience more serious problems from those infections.
The US has the highest rate of STDs in the resource-rich world. In the US, about 20 million new infections occur each year. Half of these occur among American young people (15-24 years old), who are more at risk for STDs than older adults. There are several reasons why teenage girls and young women are more at risk for STDs. First, the cervix (passage between the vagina and womb) in adolescents and young women is lined with cells that are more likely to become infected with STDs. Second, teenagers and young adults may have problems getting the information and supplies they need to avoid STDs. They may also have trouble getting STD prevention services because they do not know where to find them, do not have transportation to get there, or cannot pay for them. Even if teenagers and young women can get STD prevention services, they may not feel comfortable in places designed for adults. They may also have concerns about confidentiality.
Teenage girls and women of color have some of the highest rates of STDs, especially for chlamydia and gonorrhea. High rates of STDs among women of color are the result of several factors, including higher rates of poverty, less access to health care, and an already high rate of STDs in communities of color. This already high rate of STDs increases the risk of getting an infection each time a woman has sex because she is more likely to have sex with an infected person within her community.
Regardless of race or age, less than half of those who should be tested for STDs receive STD screening. This is especially important for women, since women suffer more frequent and more serious complications from STDs than men.
Many STDs have no symptoms, but can still be passed from person to person. A lot of people who have an STD do not even know it. They may look healthy, and still have an STD. The only way to know for sure is to have regular STD screenings by your health care provider.
Fortunately, many STDs can be prevented by practicing safer sex. Most STDs, though not all, can be successfully cured through treatment. For other STDs, there are effective medications that can help you manage your condition.
While many people with STDs show no signs or symptoms of their infection, when there are signs of STDs they are most likely to be in the genital area. The genital area in women includes the vulva (the area around the vagina including the lips), vagina (the opening where menstrual blood comes out), buttocks, urethra (the opening above the vagina where urine comes out) and anus (the opening where a bowel movement comes out). The genital area in men includes the penis, scrotum ("balls"), urethra, and anus. Some of the most common STDs include:
This STD is caused by a bacterium. Symptoms may include genital sores, vaginal discharge, a burning feeling when urinating, and swollen lymph nodes in the groin. It can be spread by vaginal or anal sex or skin-to-skin contact with sores. Chancroid can be treated with antibiotics.
This is one of the most common STDs. It is caused by a bacterium that exists in vaginal secretions and semen ("cum"). It can be spread by vaginal, oral, or anal sex without a condom or latex/polyurethane barrier. Pregnant women can pass it on to their babies during delivery. Symptoms may include vaginal discharge and burning during urination, but most women do not have any symptoms. Chlamydia can be successfully treated with antibiotics. If left untreated, it can spread to a woman's upper, internal reproductive organs (ovaries and fallopian tubes) and cause pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). PID can lead to infertility and make it difficult or impossible to become pregnant.
Yearly chlamydia screening is recommended by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) for all sexually-active women under the age of 25, as well as for older women with risk factors such as new or multiple sex partners. Unfortunately, recent reports show that less than half of sexually active women under 26 are screened for chlamydia, in part because of a lack of awareness among health care providers. If you are not offered a chlamydia test, you may want to request one from your health care provider.
Genital warts are caused by viruses. HPV (Human Papillomavirus) is the name of a large group of viruses. Certain types of HPV cause warts on the hands or feet. Other types cause infections in the genital area that can lead to genital warts, cervical cancer, or cancer of the vulva, vagina, anus, and penis. Genital HPV is spread easily through skin-to-skin contact during vaginal, oral, or anal sex. Condoms do not totally prevent transmission. People living with HIV are more likely to be infected with HPV than HIV-negative people. People living with HIV and HPV are also more likely to develop genital warts, as well as cervical or anal cancer.
It is important to find HPV early and get treatment to prevent health problems. Regular cervical screening tests are a good way to check for HPV. There are also three effective HPV vaccines. Since the introduction of the HPV vaccines several years ago, the number of 14 to 19 year old girls infected with HPV in the US has dropped by more than half. It is important for young people to get vaccinated before they have sex (before they have been exposed to HPV), since people who are already infected with HPV may not be protected by the vaccines. For more information, see The Well Project's article on HPV.
Often called "the clap," this bacterial STD exists in vaginal secretions and semen. It can be spread through vaginal, anal, or oral sex without a condom or latex/polyurethane barrier. Symptoms may include a yellowish or greenish vaginal discharge and a burning feeling when urinating. Gonorrhea can also affect the anus and the throat. Many women have no symptoms. Gonorrhea can be treated with antibiotics. If left untreated, it can cause PID and infertility. All sexually active women should be screened for gonorrhea.
Hepatitis is an inflammation (irritation) of the liver. Some types of hepatitis are caused by viruses that exist in blood, vaginal secretions, semen, and breast milk. These include hepatitis A (HAV), hepatitis B (HBV), and hepatitis C (HCV), all of which can be sexually transmitted. There is a vaccine to prevent HAV and HBV, but not for HCV. HAV goes away on its own, but HBV and HCV can become chronic (long-term) and very serious. Because HBV and HCV often have no symptoms, most people are not aware that they have the infection. It is important for people living with HIV to be tested for HBV and HCV and treated if necessary. For more information, see our article on Treatment of Hepatitis C in People Living with HIV.
This STD is caused by a virus that lives in the nerves. There are two common types of herpes. Herpes simplex type 1 (HSV-1) usually causes cold sores around the mouth. Herpes simplex type 2 (HSV-2) usually causes sores in the genital area. However, it is possible to get HSV-2 in the mouth and HSV-1 in the genital area. Symptoms include itchy or painful blisters. The virus is spread through skin-to-skin contact with sores, but it may also spread even before sores can be seen on the infected person. In most people, the sores come and go, but the virus stays in the body for life. Sometimes there are no symptoms because the virus is "hiding" in the nerves. Some women living with HIV never had blisters or sores before they became infected with HIV, and are then surprised when they develop an "outbreak" of sores because their immune systems are weakened by HIV.
Genital HSV-2 infection is more common in women than men. In addition, women living with HIV may have more frequent or difficult to treat herpes outbreaks. There is no cure for herpes, but the antiviral drugs Zovirax (acyclovir), Valtrex (valacyclovir), and Famvir (famciclovir) can reduce the number of outbreaks if taken daily and can shorten outbreaks and make them less severe if taken as soon as symptoms begin. Valtrex has also been shown to lower your risk of passing the infection to someone else. Pregnant women can pass herpes to their babies, so it is important to let your health care provider know if you have genital herpes and you are pregnant or planning to become pregnant.
This article was provided by The Well Project. Visit The Well Project's Web site to learn more about their resources and initiatives for women living with HIV. The Well Project shares its content with TheBody.com to ensure all people have access to the highest quality treatment information available. The Well Project receives no advertising revenue from TheBody.com or the advertisers on this site. No advertiser on this site has any editorial input into The Well Project's content.
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