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HIV/AIDS Resource Center for Women
Michelle Lopez Alora Gale Precious Jackson Nina Martinez Gracia Violeta Ross Quiroga Loreen Willenberg  
Michelle Alora Precious Nina Gracia Loreen  

Guide to HIV, Pregnancy and Women's Health: Screening and Monitoring

March 2013

Will I Need Extra Tests and Monitoring?

Both pregnancy and HIV care require good monitoring.

HIV positive pregnant women do not need any extra monitoring, as far as HIV is concerned, compared to non- pregnant HIV positive women.

You will have a resistance test before you start ART (unless you are diagnosed very late). If you take a short course and stop another one is recommended then.

If you conceive on ART or do not need ART for your own health, you should have a minimum of one CD4 count before you start (or when you first discover you are pregnant if you are already on ART) and one at delivery.

If you start ART in pregnancy you should have a viral load test 2 to 4 weeks after starting, at least one every trimester, at 36 weeks and delivery.


Liver function tests should be done when you start ART and then at each antenatal visit.

If you do not achieve an undetectable viral load by 36 weeks some doctors may recommend TDM (therapeutic drug monitoring). TDM uses blood tests to check whether you are absorbing the correct amount of a drug. Drug levels, particularly of PIs can vary greatly between individuals and can be lower during pregnancy. Occasionally this can lead to a dose adjustment.

Your doctor will also discuss your adherence with you and perhaps do another resistance test. You might need an adjustment to your regimen.

In addition to your HIV care you will be screened for hepatitis, syphilis and other STIs, anaemia and tuberculosis (TB).

You may also need to be screened for toxoplasmosis and cytomegalovirus (CMV). These are two common infections that can be transmitted to your baby. The tests should be performed as early as possible in your pregnancy. You should be treated for these if necessary.

Otherwise, tests will be fairly routine, and may vary slightly from doctor to doctor. Routine tests include blood pressure, weight, blood and urine tests as well as foetal monitoring.

An invasive test is a procedure or examination that needs the body to be entered in some way, either through a needle or with a tube. If a test is invasive and cannot be delayed until your viral load is undetectable, you will be recommended to start ART with raltegravir in the combination. You will also be given a single dose of nevirapine 2 to 4 hours before the procedure.

Unless you need extra care you will probably visit your clinic monthly for most of your pregnancy and every two weeks after the eighth month.

More From This Resource Center

Newly Diagnosed? Words of Encouragement from HIV-Positive Women

What Every HIV-Positive Woman Should Know About GYN Care and Prevention

This article was provided by HIV i-Base. It is a part of the publication Guide to HIV, Pregnancy and Women's Health. Visit HIV i-Base's website to find out more about their activities, publications and services.


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See Also
Newly Diagnosed? Words of Encouragement from HIV-Positive Women
What Did You Expect While You Were Expecting?
HIV Tools You Can Use