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Home > News & Publications > Journals > AFP > Vol. 60/No. 2 (August, 1999)






How to Recognize and Treat Acute HIV Syndrome
BARBARA LEE PERLMUTTER, M.D., PH.D., JORDAN B. GLASER, M.D., and SAMWEL O. OYUGI, M.D.
Staten Island University Hospital
Staten Island, New York A patient information handout on acute HIV syndrome, written by the authors of this article, is provided on page 545.


The diagnosis of acute human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) syndrome requires a high index of suspicion and proper laboratory testing. Patients with the syndrome may have fever, fatigue, rash, pharyngitis or other symptoms. Primary HIV infection should be considered in any patient with possible HIV exposure who presents with fever of unknown cause. The diagnosis is based on a positive HIV-1 RNA level (more than 50,000 copies per mL) in the absence of a positive enzyme-linked immunosorbent antibody assay (ELISA) and confirmatory Western blot antibody test for HIV. Early diagnosis permits patient education as well as treatment that may delay disease progression. Triple-combination antiretroviral therapy should be started immediately and continued indefinitely. Compliance with medication regimens is essential to maximize benefit and discourage the development of viral resistance. (Am Fam Physician 1999;60:535-46.)

In the spring of 1986, a 24-year-old bisexual man presented with fever, markedly swollen cervical nodes and an exudative tonsillitis. He had dyspnea and cough with a normal chest radiograph. No pathogens were identified. It was thought that he might have the new disease called "acquired immunodeficiency syndrome" (AIDS), but a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibody test was negative. He was treated for possible Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, and his symptoms resolved in the ensuing two weeks. Three months later, he tested positive for HIV-1 antibody on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the finding was confirmed by a Western blot test. He progressed to AIDS and died within 10 years.


See editorials on
pages 407 and 411.

Today this man's presentation would be recognized as acute HIV syndrome. It is now known that 50 to 90 percent of patients acutely infected with HIV experience at least some symptoms of the acute retroviral syndrome.1 The most common findings of the syndrome are fever (80 to 90 percent), fatigue (70 to 90 percent), rash (40 to 80 percent), headache (32 to 70 percent) and lymphadenopathy (40 to 70 percent). Additional findings include pharyngitis, myalgia, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and other symptoms2 (Table 1).3 Symptoms usually develop within days to weeks after HIV exposure and last from a few days to several months, but usually less than 14 days.3


TABLE 1
Frequency of Symptoms and Findings Associated with Acute HIV Infection
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Symptoms or findings
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Percentage of patients
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Fever >80 to 90
Fatigue >70 to 90
Rash >40 to 80
Headache 32 to 70
Lymphadenopathy 40 to 70
Pharyngitis 50 to 70
Myalgia or arthralgia 50 to 70
Nausea, vomiting or diarrhea 30 to 60
Night sweats 50
Aseptic meningitis 24
Oral ulcers 10 to 20
Genital ulcers 5 to 15
Thrombocytopenia 45
Leukopenia 40
Elevated hepatic enzyme levels 21

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

HIV=human immunodeficiency virus.

Adapted with permission from Kahn JO, Walker BD. Acute human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. N Engl J Med 1998;339:33-9.



The differential diagnosis of the early findings of acute HIV infection can be confusing. Because of a low index of suspicion, the diagnosis is missed in as many as 75 percent of patients.3 Acute HIV infection may resemble infectious mononucleosis, influenza, severe streptococcal pharyngitis, viral hepatitis, toxoplasmosis or even secondary syphilis (Table 2). For example, a patient with symptoms suggestive of HIV infection could actually be an HIV-negative young adult manifesting for the first time the effects of a primary immunodeficiency disease involving B-cell and/or T-cell dysfunction. (Immunoglobulin A deficiency--by far the most common immunodeficient condition--often presents after the age of 21 years.4) On the other hand, a patient who returns from the tropics with an unexplained febrile illness is frequently assumed to have malaria, typhoid, schistosomiasis, filariasis or an intestinal helminthic infection but may actually have HIV infection. One study found that 3 percent of such travelers were infected with HIV.5 In areas where AIDS and malaria are endemic, 23 percent of fevers are ultimately attributable to HIV infection and only 15 percent to malaria.6 Age is also a factor, with the diagnosis of acute HIV infection often delayed in patients over 50 years old.7

Primary care physicians will be the first to encounter many of the new cases of HIV infection. Because the source person usually will not have appeared to be ill during contact, the newly presenting symptomatic patient will not recognize the possibility of having acquired HIV infection. However, when a patient presents with fever and fatigue, a sexually transmitted disease or a suggestive symptom complex, the possibility of HIV exposure or high-risk behavior should be reviewed.

Besides obviously risky behavior such as unprotected sex (vaginal, oral or anal) and intravenous illicit drug use (involving shared needles or a common "cooker" into which several syringes are dipped), less obvious sources of HIV infection should be investigated. Young athletes have been known to inject testosterone using a shared syringe. The shared, sharpened plastic "straw" used to sniff cocaine may transmit HIV by way of the nasal mucosa. Body piercing and tattooing may increase the risk of HIV exposure. Occupational exposure is a possible but rare source of HIV infection in health care workers.

Diagnosing Acute HIV Infection

Blood taken during the acute phase of HIV infection (days to weeks after exposure) may show lymphopenia and thrombocytopenia, but atypical lymphocytes are infrequent. The CD4 count usually remains normal. The HIV-1 antibody tests (ELISA and Western blot test), the only tests officially used to diagnose established HIV infection, do not become positive until three or four weeks (sometimes even months) after the infection is acquired.

On the other hand, the quantitative plasma HIV-1 RNA level (viral load) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which is 95 to 98 percent sensitive for HIV,8 becomes positive within 11 days of infection.9 During the symptomatic phase of acute HIV infection, the viral RNA shows in excess of 50,000 copies per mL.3 Three instances of false-positive HIV-1-RNA tests have been reported; in each instance, however, the person was not having symptoms, and the viral load was less than 2,000 copies per mL.10 The presence of high-titer HIV-I RNA (more than 50,000 copies per mL) in the absence of HIV antibodies establishes the diagnosis of acute HIV infection.3,11


TABLE 2
Differential Diagnosis of Acute HIV Infection
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Primary cytomegalovirus infection

Drug reaction

Epstein-Barr virus mononucleosis

Viral hepatitis

Primary herpes simplex virus infection

Influenza

Severe (streptococcal) pharyngitis

Secondary syphilis

Toxoplasmosis

Rubella

Brucellosis

Malaria


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
HIV=human immunodeficiency virus.


HIV-1 antibody and viral load tests are readily available through commercial laboratories and should be performed whenever a patient presents with signs and symptoms of acute HIV syndrome and a history that is compatible with HIV infection. If viral RNA quantitation is not available, a serum or plasma p24 antigen test may be used to detect viral infection before the appearance of HIV antibodies.

If acute HIV infection is strongly suspected but the HIV-1 RNA PCR test is negative or shows a low titer, the initial high level of viral RNA may have already subsided. The patient should be followed with HIV-1 antibody tests at three months, six months and one year. If these tests remain negative, another diagnosis should be considered.

Benefits and Risks of Treatment

Even though treatment of acute primary HIV infection may seem difficult, compelling reports indicate that the administration of potent antiretroviral therapy can result in a rapid and sustained decline in the viral load to below the limit of detection within three months.12,13 Furthermore, studies of CD4 and CD8 lymphocyte dynamics show restoration of the normal ratio, reflecting recovery of the immune system.14 In one investigation of HIV-1­specific cell-mediated immune responsiveness, treatment of acute HIV infection resulted in the restoration of virus-specific immunity with control of viremia in six of six persons studied.15

Early institution of antiretroviral therapy has the advantage of keeping the viral load low by reducing replication and the appearance of resistant HIV phenotypes. It also may prevent immune depletion because of increased immune stimulation resulting from the strong antigenicity of HIV during primary infection.16 This allows for a more favorable initial immune response to HIV.

In isolated cases, treatment has been stopped after a period of time with no adverse effects. For example, the "Berlin patient" was treated aggressively for six months after acute HIV infection; the patient then stopped taking the medications but remained free of symptoms with barely detectable HIV-1 RNA for more than one year.17 However, other patients have rebounded after stopping treatment.18 The results of stopping antiretroviral medications at some point after the early initiation of therapy are currently being studied.

If acute HIV infection is not treated, the signs and symptoms disappear, along with the viremia. The person enters a prolonged stage of hidden viral replication during which the virus may not be culturable from the blood and HIV-1 RNA levels may be low or undetectable. During the next five to 10 years, lymph node architecture is destroyed, certain CD4 and CD8 cell lines are gradually depleted and progression to symptomatic disease ultimately occurs (Figure 1).19 Some subtle effects develop, reflecting early encephalopathy,20 but the liver, kidneys and lipid metabolism are spared.


HIV Infection Without Treatment


FIGURE 1. Natural history of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in the average patient without antiretroviral therapy, from the time of HIV transmission to death at 10 to 11 years. The initial burst of viremia with very high HIV-1 RNA levels () is followed by a prolonged period during which viral replication continues with lower but measurable HIV-1 RNA levels (). With the decline of the CD4 lymphocyte count () and the collapse of the immune system, high-level viremia, symptoms and opportunistic infections develop, and death ultimately occurs.
Adapted with permission from Fauci AS, Pantaleo G, Stanley S, Weissman D. Immunopathogenic mechanisms of HIV infection. Ann Intern Med 1996;124:654-63.



Some investigators suggest that persons who are not treated for acute HIV infection may be in a more favorable position when a cure is finally found,21 because they have been spared the toxicities of potent drugs, have avoided the development of drug-resistant HIV and have not suffered the stress of expensive, complex and potentially toxic medications. However, the potential benefits of early treatment appear to outweigh both the risks and negative effects of such treatment.22


The symptoms of acute HIV infection usually develop within days to weeks after exposure and usually last less than 14 days.


Treatment of Acute HIV Infection

Patients identified during acute primary HIV infection should be treated with combination antiretroviral therapy to suppress viral replication to levels below the limit of detection on plasma HIV-1 RNA assays.1,23 Although opponents of this recommendation argue for conservative management,21 compelling arguments for early aggressive therapy have been presented.22

Patients who present with symptomatic acute HIV syndrome have a poorer prognosis than those with asymptomatic primary HIV infection.24 Early treatment may preserve immune system function by blunting the high level of HIV replication (decreasing the "set point," or the plasma concentration of viral RNA) and reducing damage to the immune system during this period. Thus, early treatment has the potential to decrease the set point (thereby delaying disease progression), reduce the viral mutation rate and decrease the risk of HIV transmission.1 The current recommendation is to use, for an indefinite duration, combination antiretroviral therapy with at least three drugs to which the patient has never been exposed.


TABLE 3
Recommended Antiretroviral Agents for the Treatment of Established HIV Infection*
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Column 1
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Column 2
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Indinavir (Crixivan)

Nelfinavir (Viracept)

Ritonavir (Norvir)

Saquinavir (Fortovase)

Stavudine plus lamivudine

Efavirenz (Sustiva)

Nevirapine (Viramune)
Zidovudine (Retrovir) plus didanosine (Videx)

Stavudine (Zerit) plus didanosine

Zidovudine plus zalcitabine (Hivid)

Zidovudine plus lamivudine (Epivir)

Ritonavir plus saquinavir


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

HIV=human immunodeficiency virus.

*--One choice from column 1 and one choice from column 2.

Adapted with permission from Dept of Health and Human Services and the Henry J. Kaiser Foundation. Guidelines for the use of antiretroviral agents in HIV-infected adults and adolescents. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 1998;47(RR-5):43-82 [Published erratum in MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 1998;47:619].




In most untreated patients, set-point plasma HIV-1 RNA levels stabilize between 1,000 and 10,000 copies per mL for a number of years. In the advanced stages of AIDS, HIV-1 RNA levels exceed 1 million copies per mL. In the absence of treatment, the apparent "nonprogessor" with an HIV-1 RNA level of less than 400 copies per mL is rare. Nonprogression is the state hopefully achievable with early aggressive therapy.1


A quantitative plasma HIV-1 RNA viral load of greater than 50,000 copies per mL in the absence of HIV antibodies establishes the diagnosis of acute HIV syndrome.


The three-drug combinations can be the same as those used to treat established HIV infection (Table 3).1 We use the following:

A nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) with good central nervous system penetration, such as zidovudine (Retrovir; AZT), stavudine (Zerit; d4T) or abacavir (Ziagen).
A nonthymidine NRTI such as didanosine (Videx; ddI), lamivudine (Epivir; 3TC) or zalcitabine (Hivid; ddC).
A protease inhibitor such as indinavir (Crixivan), nelfinavir (Viracept), ritonavir (Norvir), saquinavir (Fortovase) or amprenavir (Agenerase). If a protease inhibitor is not tolerated or if the plan is to reserve protease inhibitors for future use should resistance develop, a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, such as nevirapine (Viramune), delavirdine (Rescriptor) or efavirenz (Sustiva; EFV), should be tried.
Because treatment must continue indefinitely until new agents are introduced or a cure is found, several important issues need to be considered. Before this complex regimen is started, the patient should be counseled that interrupting therapy or reducing dosages can lead to viral resistance that is not reversible. Every effort should be made to choose a regimen that is durable and tolerable and that the patient can adhere to for a long time. The initial regimen needs to be the most efficacious available, so it should be one that is comfortable for the patient in terms of both side effects and lifestyle.


Treatment regimens for acute HIV syndrome should include a combination of three antiretroviral medications continued indefinitely.


Virtually all antiretroviral agents have potentially serious side effects.1,23 Notable effects of protease inhibitors include the unmasking of latent diabetes mellitus, the development of hyperlipidemia or lipodystrophy (fatty deposits and the bloated abdomen known as "protease paunch"), the elevation of transaminase levels and the reactivation of previously quiescent viral hepatitis. Indinavir can cause nephrolithiasis and therefore should not be used in patients with preexisting renal disease. The nucleosides can cause pancreatitis, peripheral neuropathy, nausea and headache. Abacavir and amprenavir can cause serious hypersensitivity reactions. Efavirenz may cause dysphoria and nightmares.

If treatment needs to be stopped, all medications should be stopped to avoid the development of viral resistance. Abacavir should not be restarted because fatal hypersensitivity reactions have occurred on rechallenge.

Final Comment

Does aggressive treatment of acute HIV infection really decrease morbidity and mortality? Although few controlled studies have been conducted, the available data show that early and sustained therapy can result in the persistent suppression of HIV replication with reconstitution of certain virus-specific immune responses.15,16 We believe that treatment provides the best hope for patients with acute HIV infection. Some sources of updated AIDs information are provided in Table 4.


TABLE 4
Selected AIDS Information Resources
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

National organizations

American Foundation for AIDS Research
120 Wall St., 13th Floor
New York, NY 10005
Telephone: 212-806-1600

Publishes a newsletter and an AIDS­HIV treatment directory

CDC National Prevention Information Network
P.O. Box 6003
Rockville, MD 20849-6003
Telephone: 800-458-5231

Reference and referral source on HIV, AIDS and STDs

National AIDS Treatment Advocacy Project
580 Broadway, Suite 403
New York, NY 10012
Telephone: 212-219-0106

Treatment and education resource, publishes a newsletter

San Francisco AIDS Foundation
Telephone: 415-487-3000

Publishes a bulletin on experimental AIDS treatments

International AIDS Society­USA
1001 B O'Reilly Ave.
San Francisco, CA 94129-0916
Telephone: 415-561-6720

Educational resources for physicians on the management of HIV disease

Newsletters and magazines

GMHC Treatment Issues
119 W. 24th St.
New York, NY 10011
Telephone: 212-367-1206

Provides education, advocacy, a telephone hotline and information on legal issues, treatment, meals, children, outreach and speakers

PWA Newsletter
Telephone: 212-255-0520

PWA Health Group provides information on drug research and treatments, and women's treatment issues.
Treatment Review
Telephone: 212-260-8868

AIDS Treatment Data Network publication that provides information on case management, treatment access and support

National telephone hotlines

AIDS Hotline
Telephone: 800-342-AIDS

CDC hotline that provides answers to questions, statistics, support, referrals and information about groups

AIDS "Warm" Line
Telephone: 800-933-3413

HIV telephone consultation service provided by the scientific division of the American Academy of Family Physicians

Project Inform Hotline
Telephone: 800-822-7422

Provides HIV treatment strategy information, resource guide and limited advocacy

Internet sites

AIDS Clinical Trials Information Services
http://www.actis.org

AIDS Treatment Data Network
http://www.aidsnyc.org/network/

HIV/AIDS Information Center
http://www.ama-assn.org/special/hiv/

Medscape HIV/AIDS
http://hiv.medscape.com

University of California at San Francisco
http://hivinsite.ucsf.edu/

HIV/AIDS Treatment Information Service
http://www.hivatis.org

CDC
http://www.cdc.gov


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
AIDS=acquired immunodeficiency syndrome; CDC=Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; HIV=human immunodeficiency virus; STDs=sexually transmitted diseases; GMHC=Gay Men's Health Crisis; PWA=People With Aids.



The federal government published updated guidelines for the use of antiretroviral agents on May 5, 1999.1 These guidelines are more current than the principles of therapy published by the National Institutes of Health in 1998.23 Copies of the treatment guidelines and all updates are available from the HIV/AIDS Treatment Information Service (ATIS): telephone number: 800-448-0440; fax number: 301-519-6616; ATIS Web site: http://www.hivatis.org.

The authors thank Jennifer Miller Aboujaoude, M.L.S., director of the Medical Library at Staten Island (N.Y.) University Hospital, for assisting with reference materials and Francine DiGregorio for assisting with the preparation of the manuscript.


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

The Authors

BARBARA LEE PERLMUTTER, M.D., PH.D.,
is assistant professor of clinical medicine at the State University of New York (SUNY) Health Science Center at Brooklyn, and an attending in the departments of medicine and family practice at St. Mary Hospital, Hoboken, N.J. She received her medical degree from UMDNJ­New Jersey Medical School, Newark. Dr. Perlmutter provides medical care for HIV-infected patients at her private office, in centers for the homeless and at the infectious disease clinic of Staten Island University (N.Y.) Hospital.

JORDAN B. GLASER, M.D.,
is associate professor of clinical medicine at SUNY Health Science Center at Brooklyn and director of infectious diseases and the AIDS program at Staten Island University Hospital. He received his medical degree from the SUNY Health Science Center at Brooklyn College of Medicine. Dr. Glaser provides medical care for HIV-infected patients at his private practice, in local homeless centers and in the correctional setting.

SAMWEL O. OYUGI, M.D.,
is an internal medicine resident at Staten Island University Hospital. He received his medical degree from the University of Connecticut School of Medicine, Farmington. A native of Kenya, Dr. Oyugi has an interest in infectious diseases and tropical medicine.

Address correspondence to Barbara Lee Perlmutter, M.D., Ph.D., 20 Ebbitts St., Staten Island, NY 10306. Reprints are not available from the authors.

REFERENCES

Dept of Health and Human Services and Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. Guidelines for the use of antiretroviral agents in HIV-infected adults and adolescents. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 1998;47(RR-5):43-82 [Published erratum in MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 1998;47:619]. [This reference as well as updates may be accessed at http://www.hivatis.org]
Vanhems P, Allard R, Cooper DA, Perrin L, Vizzard J, Hirschel B, et al. Acute human immunodeficiency virus type 1 disease as a mononucleosis-like illness: is the diagnosis too restrictive? Clin Infect Dis 1997;24:965-70 [Published erratum in Clin Infect Dis 1997;25:325].
Kahn JO, Walker BD. Acute human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. N Engl J Med 1998;339:33-9.
Stadtmauer G, Cunningham-Rundles C. Primary immune disorders that mimic AIDS. Infect Med 1997;14:899-905.
Doherty JF, Grant AD, Byceson AD. Fever as the presenting complaint of travellers returning from the tropics. QJM 1995;88:277-81.
Nwanyanwu OC, Kumwenda N, Kazembe PN, Jemu S, Ziba C, Nkhoma WC, et al. Malaria and human immunodeficiency virus infection among male employees of a sugar estate in Malawi. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 1997;91:567-9.
AIDS among persons aged > or=50 years--United States, 1991-1996. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 1998;47:21-7.
Dailey P, Hayden D. Viral load assays: methodologies, variables, and interpretation. In: Cohen PT, Sande MA, Volberding PA, eds. The AIDS knowledge base: a textbook on HIV disease from the University of California, San Francisco, and San Francisco General Hospital. 3d ed. San Francisco: HIV InSite, 1998.
Busch MP, Lee LL, Satten GA, Henrad DR, Farzadegan H, Nelson KE, et al. Time course of detection of viral and serologic markers preceding human immunodeficiency virus type 1 seroconversion: implications for screening of blood and tissue donors. Transfusion 1995;35:91-7.
Rich JD, Merriman NA, Mylonakis E, Greenough TC, Flanigan TP, Mady BJ, et al. Misdiagnosis of HIV infection by HIV-1 plasma viral load testing: a case series. Ann Intern Med 1999;130:37-9.
von Sydow M, Gaines H, Sonnerborg A, Forsgren M, Pehrson PO, Strannegard O. Antigen detection in primary HIV infection. Br Med J 1988;296:238-40 [Published erratum in Br Med J 1988;296:525].
Hecht FM, Smith D, Cooper D, et al. Treatment of primary HIV infection with nelfinavir, zidovudine and lamivudine [Abstract]. Proceedings of the 12th World AIDS Conference; 1998 Jun 28­Jul 3, Geneva, Switzerland. Bologna: Monduzzi, 1998.
Lafeuillade A, Poggi C, Chollet L, et al. Long-term evaluation of triple therapy administered since primary HIV-1 infection (PHI) [Abstract]. In: Proceedings of the 12th World AIDS Conference; 1998 Jun 28­Jul 3, Geneva, Switzerland. Bologna: Monduzzi, 1998.
Kinloch-De Loes S, Tilling RS, Turnbull W, et al. Naive T cell subsets during acute infection (AI) with HIV and response to highly active antiretroviral infection [Abstract]. In: Proceedings of the 12th World AIDS Conference; 1998 Jun 28­Jul 3, Geneva, Switzerland. Bologna: Monduzzi, 1998.
Walker BD. HIV infection: the body fights back [Abstract]. In: Program and abstracts of the 5th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections; 1998 Feb 1-5; Chicago. Alexandria. Va.: Foundation for Retrovirology and Human Health, 1998.
Rosenberg ES, Billingsley JM, Caliendo AM, Boswell SL, Sax PE, Kalams SA, et al. Vigorous HIV-1-specific CD4+ T cell responses associated with control of viremia. Science 1997;278:1447-50.
Schools M. The Berlin patient. NY Times Magazine 1998;June 21:32-5.
Daar ES, Bai J, Hausner MA, Majchrowicz M, Tamaddon M, Giorgi JV. Acute HIV syndrome after discontinuation of antiretroviral therapy in a patient treated before seroconversion. Ann Intern Med 1998;128:827-9.
Fauci AS, Pantaleo G, Stanley S, Weissman D. Immunopathogenic mechanisms of HIV infection. Ann Intern Med 1996;124:654-63.
Clifford D. Primary neurologic complications of HIV infection. International AIDS Society--USA 1998;5:4-7. Retrieved April 1999 from the World Wide Web: http://www.ama-assn.org/special/hiv/treatmnt/updates/neurcomp.htm.
Burman WJ, Reves RR, Cohn DL. The case for conservative management of early HIV disease. JAMA 1998;280:93-5.
Walker BD, Basgoz N. Treat HIV-1 infection like other infections--treat it. JAMA 1998:280:91-3.
Report of the NIH panel to define principles of therapy of HIV infection. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 1998;47(RR-5):16-32.
Clark SJ, Shaw GM. The acute retroviral syndrome and the pathogenesis of HIV-1 infection. Semin Immunol 1993;5:149-55.
Copyright © 1999 by the American Academy of Family Physicians.
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