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Male-to-female transmission rates vs. female-to-male

Feb 19, 2001

Can you cite some reputable studies about the difference in male-to-female and female-to-male transmission rates? I have heard figures as low as 4:1 (WHO, 2000) and as high as 20:1 (Padian, Shiboski & Jewell, 1991) or higher.

Response from Mr. Kull

Read through the recent report from the 8th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections entitled "The Probability of HIV-1 Transmission Per Coital Act in Monogamous HIV-Discordant Couples, Rakai, Uganda" (

Try the following sources as well:

It is generally agreed that male-female transmission is more likely than female-male, but the numbers do vary.


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