Mar 15, 2013
Hi I am just about to start T/I and have heard that bone thinning is one of the issues that people are experiencing.
Would weight bearing exercise counter this?
Response from Dr. Young
Hello and thanks for posting.
First off, know that low bone mineral density (BMD) is common among people living with HIV, even before one starts treatment. Current US care guidelines recommend BMD testing (called DEXA) for all men over 50 and post menopausal women; or for people who have had a suspicious fracture (a broken bone from a fall of less than body height). Given a preponderance of data, I personally recommend DEXA for all people- as our analysis from the HOPS cohort (US) shows that even young adults are at significantly greater risk of breaking bones than the general HIV-uninfected population. There are other possible contributors to low BMD, including kidney, thyroid diseases and low testosterone- it's recommended that these health issues be evaluated and screened for in people who might be at risk. A simple online tool to look at your fracture risk (and recommended, especially if you don't have access to, or haven't had a DEXA) is called FRAX.
If your BMD is extremely low (osteoporotic), I generally avoid the use of tenofovir (part of Truvada, Atripla, Complera and Stribild) as data convincingly shows that this medication contributes to accelerated BMD loss- something that occurs for ~1 year after people start on HIV medications. I'll tend to prescribe abacavir (part of Epzicom/Kivexa) in such patients, provided that genetic HLAB5701 testing is negative. If your BMD is normal, then I usually worry less about this initial loss.
You can offset these risks, as you point out, by weight-bearing exercise (but not swimming or cycling); but also by avoiding smoking tobacco and getting adequate amounts of dietary (or supplemental) calcium and vitamin D.
Hope that helps. BY
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